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Lineage in Biological News

Little teeth suggest big jump in primate timeline

... remains ever found of anthropoids, the primate lineage of today's monkeys, apes and humans, say ... exciting because they show that the anthropoid lineage is much more ancient than we realized." In ... only Anthrasimias's is part of the anthropoid lineage that evolved into modern monkeys, apes and ....

Field Museum paleontologist leads study on two new dinosaurs from China

... of ornithomimosaur, or ostrich-mimic dinosaur. Ornithomimosaurs are a lineage of theropods that evolved a toothless beak and were likely omnivorous or ... the environmental sorting of animals and the very stable, but depauperate, lineage composition of Cretaceous Central Asian dinosaur faunas that reined for ...

2009 ASPB Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship award announcement

... State University Mentor: Patricia Bedinger Analysis of an Emerging lineage of Wild Tomato I can't express how grateful and excited I am to be a SURF recipient. My project is evaluating a possible diverging lineage of a marginal population of the wild tomato species, Solanum habrochaites. ...

Scientists identify key gene that protects against leukemia

... HSCs are proliferating and the rate of differentiation toward the myeloid lineage that ultimately results in leukemia. The striking analogy inspired the ... JunB-deficient mice consistently displayed higher levels of myeloid lineage than the control group, indicating constant regeneration of a ...

Genome of simplest animal reveals ancient lineage, confounding array of complex capabilities

... whole genome analysis supports placing the placozoans after the sponge lineage branched from other animals," said Daniel Rokhsar, the publication's ... another 13 placozoan species in order to identify the most basal placozoan lineage and genome," said Schierwater. "Trichoplax is an ancient lineagea good ...

Duck-billed platypus genome sequence published

... genome of the platypus, whose ancestors split from the rest of mammalian lineage some 166 million years ago, with the well-characterized genomes of the ... which had been passed on from ancestral reptile genomes. The reptilian lineage displays a similar duplication of venom genes, but that duplication ...

Bizarre walking bat has ancient heritage

... in a report published in the journal BMC Evolutionary Biology. "The lesser short-tailed bat seems to be the sole survivor of an ancient Australian lineage now found only in New Zealand," says Dr Hand. "This study shows that, contrary to existing hypotheses, bats are not overwhelmingly absent from the ...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

... a single DNA nucleotide change which resulted in a mutation in the most conserved region of the protein. Of the 45 individuals within the affected lineage who inherited the mutation, 33 have developed PGL2, providing strong evidence that hSDH5 is the PGL2 gene. The seven individuals who inherited the ...

T-STAR grant funds genetic studies on shrimp and papaya and endangered cycad rescue

... a pressing horticultural problem, an acute invasive species crisis, fundamental questions concerning pollinator-plant interactions in an ancient lineage of plant, and critical gaps in knowledge needed to steer urgent conservation decisions," says Marler. "WPTRC scientists in partnership with ...

Mouse model provides clues to human language development

... in the mouse phenotype. The study of the Foxp2 mice was funded within the scope of the National Genome Research Network (NGFN). As with each mouse lineage studied in the German Mouse Clinic, the Helmholtz scientists analyzed the Foxp2 mice by screening for more than 300 parameters, including the ability ...

University of Florida study provides insight into evolution of first flowers

... small flowering plant commonly used as a model organism in plant genetics research, and the avocado tree Persea americana, which belongs to an older lineage of so-called basal angiosperms. "What we found is that the flower of Persea is a genetic fossil, still carrying genetic instructions that would ...

K-State researcher finds 1918 flu resulted in current lineage of H1N1 swine influenza viruses

... in swine and cause mild respiratory disease. The 1918 virus spread through the pig population, adapted to the swine and resulted in the current lineage of the H1N1 swine influenza viruses. The researchers' study is published in the May 2009 Journal of Virology . "This study emphasizes that an ...

Fossil fragments reveal 500-million-year-old monster predator

... of the body. We can only guess at what its function might have been." Hurdia and Anomalocaris are both early offshoots of the evolutionary lineage that led to the arthropods, the large modern group that contains the insects, crustaceans, spiders, millipedes and centipedes. They reveal details ...

Empire State Stem Cell Board awards $12.7 million to Albert Einstein College of Medicine

... turnover and obesity. Carl Schildkraut, Ph.D., professor of cell biology $1,080,000 Differential regulation of DNA replication during neural lineage specification in human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Charles E. Rogler, Ph.D., professor of medicine; ...

Little Salt Spring underwater archeological site in Florida receives new funding

... and wooden relics, fossils of extinct prehistoric creatures, a 7,000 year-old skull with brain tissue who's mitochondrial DNA revealed a genetic lineage not previously identified in the Americas. ...

Ancestral genome of present-day African great apes & humans had burst of DNA sequence duplication

... from whom humans, gorillas and chimps descended, lived in Africa between 8 million and 12 million years ago. Most scientists think that the lineage that eventually led to chimps and humans diverged from the African great ape ancestors about 5 million to 7 million years ago. "What's exciting ...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features stem cell differentiation, plant RNAi methods

... stem cells into lymphocytes. The OP9-DL1 system has been useful in addressing questions about the cellular and molecular regulation of T-lymphocyte lineage commitment, pre-T cell receptor signaling (beta-selection), functional characteristics of progenitor T cells, and maturation of functional CD8 T ...

Single gene lets bacteria jump from host to host

... organ when the squid family came onto the scene in the Pacific Ocean at least 30 million years ago. "The regulatory gene entered the bacterium's lineage and allowed it to expand its host range into the squid," according to Mandel. "The bottom-line message of the paper is that bacteria can shift host ...

NIST guides genetic genealogy labs toward improved accuracy

... a paper* with recommendations for genealogy testing that they hope will improve the accuracy and reliability of the product. A mans paternal lineage can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome (Y-DNA), which, like many European surnames, passes from father to son. DNA profiling provides a ...

Stowers Institute's Linheng Li Lab expands understanding of bone marrow stem cell niche

... and Physics, who provided the key assistance in the two-photon microscopic experiments. "EVISC technology will allow us to study HSC lineage commitment in vivo," said Linheng Li, Ph.D., Investigator and senior author on the paper. "Furthermore, we will be able to use this technology to ...

Syracuse University researchers discover new way to attack some forms of leukemia

... three years studying one of the proteins that regulate the way DNA is packaged when white blood cells are formed. The protein is called the Mixed lineage Leukemia (MLL) protein. In normal cells, the MLL protein, which contains 3,969 amino acids, combines with three other proteins to create a molecular ...

Scientists call for protected 'swimways' for the endangered leatherback sea turtle

... to turn the high-tech science into political will and conservation action for critically endangered leatherbacks." The last members of an ancient lineage that has outlived the dinosaurs, leatherback sea turtles are ocean giants that grow to the size of small automobiles, dive more than half a mile ...

Forsyth scientists trigger cancer-like response from embryonic stem cells

... in parts of the Xenopus frog embryo. This resulted in a striking alteration of the behavior of one type of embryonic stem cell: the pigment cell lineage of the neural crest. When mutated, these pigment cells over-proliferate, spread out, and become highly invasive of blood vessels, liver, heart, and ...

New meat-eating dinosaur from Argentina had bird-like breathing system

... ("air bones from the Rio Colorado"). "Aerosteon, found in rocks dating to the Cretaceous period about 85 million years old, represents a lineage surviving in isolation in South America. Its closest cousin in North American, Allosaurus, had gone extinct millions of years earlier and was ...

Scientists find 'redesigned hammer' that forged evolution of pregnancy in mammals

... factor protein, HoxA-11. The specific change they found in HoxA-11 is present in all known placental mammals from elephants, the most primitive lineage with a placenta, to humans but does not exist in marsupials, like opossums or wallabies, where there is a brief and rudimentary pregnancy followed ...

September 2008 Biology of Reproduction highlights

... Proteomes to unravel gonadotrophs Although the basic developmental lineage of pituitary gonadotrophs is known, it has been harder to associate specific changes in gene expression with maturation due to the limited cell ...

Mate or hibernate? That's the question worm pheromones answer

... out, but scientists weren't sure exactly what it was. " C. elegans is one of the best-studied organisms on earth," Edison said. "The entire cell lineage of the animal is known from fertilized egg to adult animal. Every single cell division had been mapped out. But until now, its small-molecule ...

Stem cell chicken and egg debate moves to unlikely arena: the testes

... actually caught a testis stem cell population in the act of turning into their own niche, known in the fly testis as the hub. "We used a detailed lineage tracing strategy to differentiate between single somatic stem cells (SSCs) and hub cells," said Voog, an M.D./Ph.D. student in Jones' lab. The hub ...

New source of heart stem cells discovered

... early on, our particular progenitor expresses Nkx2-5 and Isl1, but quickly loses expression of both and starts expressing Wt1," said Pu. "Think of a lineage hierarchy with Nkx2-5 and Isl1 at the top, and Wt1 as a branch. These two lineages separate pretty early, before the heart is present in the embryo. ...

Origin of cells for connective tissues of skull and face challenged

... it is important to identify and validate -- rather than ignore -- assumptions; and second, because we identified an alternative embryonic cell lineage as the source of the head and facial structures, we can now more effectively analyze and understand the molecular-genetic mechanisms that regulate ...

Medical College researchers find dinosaur clues in fat

... birds and mammals, but the ability to generate heat was lost in the group that gave rise to birds and lizards after it separated from the mammalian lineage (the researchers found the lizard genome similarly lacks a UCP1 gene). This strongly implies that dinosaurs, which diverged from birds even later ...

Lemurs' evolutionary history may shed light on our own

... in nature only on the island nation of Madagascar, off Africas southeastern coast, lemurs and their close relatives the lorises represent the sister lineage to all other primates. And that makes lemurs key to understanding what distinguishes us and the rest of our primate cousins from all other animals, ...

Dartmouth researchers find the root of the evolutionary emergence of vertebrates

... history of microRNAs shared between human and mice, the researchers determined that the highest rate of microRNA innovation in the vertebrate lineage occurred before the divergence between the living jawless fishes like the lamprey and the jawed fishes like the shark, but after the divergence of ...

Elusive pancreatic stem cells found in adult mice

... the existence of bona fide beta cell progenitors in the pancreas after birth. The elusiveness of this cell type reached a summit when genetic lineage tracing provided evidence that pre-existing beta cells, rather than stem/progenitor cells, are the major source of new beta cells in adult mice, the ...

Hybridization partially restores vision in cavefish, NYU study finds

... that lead to blindness are different in other, independently evolved populations. Thus, when you cross them, the genetic deficiencies in one lineage are compensated for by strengths in the other, and vice-versa. The research, supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the ...

Plant geneticists find veritas in vino

... grapes had been controversial but this study clearly shows that ten of the 19 chromosomes resulted from a duplication that occurred shortly after the lineage of grapes diverged from that of the model plants Arabidopsis and poplar. The breeding of grape vines is difficult because they take several years ...

New, rare and threatened species discovered in Ghana

... cylindricus) and the Nimba flycatcher (Melaenornis annamarulae)(first time recorded in Ghana); and nine species new to science: a spider tick whose lineage is as old as the dinosaurs and eight species of katydids. (See a more detailed list of findings at the end of this release.) Researchers also ...

Human embryonic stem cell -- derived bone tissue closes massive skull injury

... says Hwang. In addition, their known composition allowed the researchers to characterize the extracellular microenvironmental cues that drive the lineage specification. The promise of pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine hangs on the development of such control techniques. Left ...

Tree of life for flowering plants reveals relationships among major groups

... also confirmed that a unique species of plant called Amborella, found only on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, represents the earliest diverging lineage of flowering plants. Robert Jansen, professor of integrative biology at The University of Texas at Austin, said the work sets the stage for all ...

Are current projections of climate change-impacts on biodiversity misleading?

... test capable of differentiating between the contribution of contemporary and historical climate drivers of diversity gradients across a complete lineage of species at a continental scale. In recent years, analytical attempts to shed light on the role of history in determining todays patterns of ...
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