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LEAF in Biological News

High construction cost for cycads

... factors indicate the construction costs of this leaf form are substantial." Green leaves must pay back their own construction costs, but each leaf is also required to supply the energy needed to ... to maintain. Therefore, large plants with this leaf construction strategy must also possess a payback ...

Food security for leaf-cutting ants: Workers and their fungus garden reject endophyte invaders

... think you're seeing just one organism, but each leaf can have dozens of fungal species growing inside, ... endo-, inside, and phyte, plant. "We knew that leaf cutter ants practice phenomenal garden hygiene. ... to ants, and thereby protect the plant from leaf cutter ant invasion. Also, since most leaves in ...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

... A key item in the developmental agenda of a plant leaf is the establishment of an axis that makes a ... for the leaf's function: it ensures that the leaf develops a flattened blade that is optimized for ... traffic between the upper and lower sides of the leaf are thought to stably maintain this polar axis. ...

Historical increase in corn yield -- it's in the roots

... traits of these corn crops has been a more erect leaf angle, which is known to create greater ... effects on crop growth associated with varying leaf erectness and/or root system architecture. They ... for a set of "hypothetical hybrids" varying in leaf and root characteristics. The study revealed ...

Novel electric signals in plants

... electrical signals in plants moving from leaf to leaf could be measured. The speed of the signals ... through open stomata directly into the inner leaf tissue and then placed onto the cell walls (see ...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

... A key item in the developmental agenda of a plant leaf is the establishment of an axis that makes a ... for the leaf's function: it ensures that the leaf develops a flattened blade that is optimized for ... traffic between the upper and lower sides of the leaf are thought to stably maintain this polar axis. ...

Detecting disease in greenhouse plants

... Certain diseases such as powdery mildew give the leaf surface a powdery finish. Another disease, sooty mold, appears on the leaf as tan, brown, or even black spots. This image ... Color ratio was also affected by the age of the leaf in some cases. The ratios for sour orange leaves ...

A win-win: U-pick pumpkin farms recycle urban leaves

... even during inclement autumn weather. Using leaf mulch collected from urban areas may help improve ... of clean fruit at harvest was higher in both leaf mulch production systems compared with bare ... had the potential to reduce the cost of municipal leaf management while providing organic matter to the ...

Key link in how plants adapt to climate discovered by Stanford researchers

... some of the decisions are made long before a new leaf sprouts. Stanford researchers have found that ... determine the number of stomata a newly sprouting leaf should form, the plant takes key factors about ... with environmental conditions. For example, a leaf contains fewer pores when carbon dioxide in the ...

Biochemists manipulate fruit flavor enzymes

... the unique scent of jasmine flowers) and green leaf volatiles (GLV) respectively. GLVs confer characteristic aromas to fruits and vegetables. Green leaf volatiles and jasmonates emitted by plants also ... "Genetic engineering/modification (GM) of green leaf volatile production holds significant potential ...

From Canada to the Caribbean: Tree leaves control their own temperature, Penn study reveals

... inside a healthy, photosynthesizing tree leaf is affected less by outside environmental ... according to the study, most likely occurs when leaf temperatures are about 21C, with latitude or ... little, if any, role. This homeostasis of leaf temperature means that in colder ...

Nitrogen retained through loss

... large quantities of nitrogen. However, the leaf has a short lifespan and as it dies off, little of the nitrogen is retained by the plant. leaf loss therefore also means considerable nitrogen ... for example, retain nutrients by collecting the leaf material. Their holes can therefore form an ...

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... Microbiology, 74. 8: 2518-2525.) leaf Age May Contribute to Contamination of Lettuce ... in population size also varied significantly with leaf age, however the colonization was consistently ... rates of S. enterica were found to be similarly leaf age dependent. Both bacterial pathogens also ...

Elastic stresses influence formation of leaf veins

... generated by the unequal growth rate of different leaf tissues. leaf veins are the channels that conduct substances within the leaf and lend support to ...

Smithsonian researchers show major role of bats in plant protection

... bats and birds lost merely 4.3 percent of their leaf area to insect herbivores. When only birds were excluded, plants lost 7.2 percent of their leaf area. When only bats were excluded, plants lost a striking 13.3 percent of their leaf area, demonstrating that in the tropical forest ...

How size matters

... of nature is partly due to the uniformity of leaf and flower size in individual plants, and ... growth signal that keeps the cells throughout the leaf dividing. The more of this signal is produced, ... the margins, we suggest it gets diluted as the leaf or petal grows. Once the concentration falls ...

Complex carbon picture clearer

... carbon) can be changed with the addition of fresh leaf litter. The capacity of soils to store carbon ... than would be predicted by the increase in leaf litter, said Powers. We suspect that this extra ... stimulated by adding large quantities of fresh leaf litter. This effect, the stimulation of the ...

Frog study takes leaf out of nature's book

... findings will not only help save the splendid leaf frog Cruziohyla calcarifer from extinction in the ... and disease, have all contributed to the splendid leaf frogs precarious situation. This research aims ... should be eating. And yet the diet of splendid leaf frogs affects their colouration which, in turn, ...

Fossil plants bring Wilf distinguished speaker honor

... the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. He also looks at modern insect herbivory, leaf shape-to-climate relationships and the decoding of leaf venation characters. Wilf will lecture on three topics at any level ...

New discovery suggests trees evolved camouflage defense against long extinct predator

... The mottled colours of seedling leaves are similar to the appearance of leaf litter, which would have made them difficult for a moa to distinguish. The unusual colouring may also reduce the probability of leaf outlines and help camouflage leaves against the sunlight-draped forest ...

Photoselective film proves effective for controlling height in potted gardenia plants

... the low tunnels. Plant growth indicators (including main shoot length and leaf area and lateral shoot number, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight) were determined along the growth cycle. ...

Scripps studies offer new picture of Lake Tahoe's earthquake potential

... in greater detail. Using comprehensive CHIRP and coring surveys of Fallen leaf Lake, where the West Tahoe Fault crosses the southern end of the lake, the ... onshore at Baldwin Beach, then passes through the southern third of Fallen leaf Lake, where it descends into Christmas Valley near Echo Summit. ...

Researchers examine bacterial rice diseases, search for genetic solutions

... is part of the ISU research team. The team is also studying bacterial leaf streak of rice caused by the closely related bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzicola . Bacterial leaf streak is usually not as damaging as bacterial blight, but it is ...

Saving wheat crops worldwide

... have identified a wheat gene sequence which provides protection against leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew. "Genetic disease resistance is ... gene sequence show it has provided partial but constant protection against leaf rust for over 80 years." Understanding the molecular nature of this ...

BioScience tip sheet, January 2009

... 2009 issue of BioScience includes the following research articles: leaf Evolution and Development: Advancing Technologies, Advancing ... new research methods that are becoming available for the study of leaf development, including genomics and visualization techniques that show ...

The bonsai effect: Wounded plants make jasmonates, inhibiting cell division, stunting growth

... growth and shape of leaves is by cell division, and more than 90% of leaf growth is by subsequent cell expansion. Reporting in the online, ... new leaves grow to only one-half of their normal size although the size of leaf cells is unaffected. Unexpectedly, the suppression of cell division in ...

When under attack, plants can signal microbial friends for help

... Researchers at the University of Delaware have discovered that when the leaf of a plant is under attack by a pathogen, it can send out an S.O.S. to the ... are now working to determine what the aerial signal is from the infected leaf to the root using different pathogen-associated molecular markers (PAMPs). ...

Entomological Society of America names 2008 award winners

... and soil microbiota. His M.S. work was on management of cottonwood leaf beetle in plantation-grown poplars. From 2000󈝰, he worked for the ... Marlin Rice and Dr. John Hill. Jeff's research involved work on the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Chrysomelidae), and Bean pod mottle virus ...

Key discovered to cold tolerance in corn

... PPDK slowly disappeared in parallel with the decline in the ability of the leaf to take up carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. When Miscanthus leaves were placed in the cold, they made more PPDK and as they did so, the leaf became able to maintain photosynthesis in the cold conditions. Why? ...

Mechanisms of plant-fungi symbiosis characterized by DOE Joint Genome Institute

... this formidable web of mycorrhizal hyphae that permeates the soil and leaf litter and coax a relationship for their mutual nutritional benefit," said ... These include Glomus, a second plant symbiotic fungus, Melampsora, a leaf pathogen, and several plant endophytes, bacteria and fungi that live ...

Gene guards grain-producing grasses so people and animals can eat

... epidemics in grasses in the 20th century, including the 1970 southern corn leaf blight that destroyed 15 percent of the U.S. corn crop. The study, part ... The resulting tissue damage on the barley leaves was typical of maize leaf blight symptoms in corn. Some of the research barley, which had a ...

Ripe fruit preferred

... very healthy. The beautifully colored leaves of fall are a sign of leaf senescence, the programmed cell death in plants. This process causes the ... There is clearly one biochemical pathway for chlorophyll decomposition in leaf senescence and fruit ripening, concludes Krutler. When chlorophyll is ...

Humans fostering forest-destroying disease

... for the disease, since it acquires a non-lethal but highly contagious leaf infection. Bay laurel seems to be increasing in abundance in the changing ... understory microclimates that encourage the spread of the bay laurel leaf infection, which in turn can lead to the fatal infection of the oaks. ...

Scary ancient spiders revealed in 3-D models, thanks to new imaging technique

... of fossilised remains of this creature suggested that it could have hunted on the open forest floor. It had long legs that enabled it to run through leaf litter to chase, catch and kill its prey. The new models reveal, for the first time, that Eophrynus prestivicii had defensive spikes on its ...

Animal and plant communication at the ESA Annual Meeting

... of bug, however, has exploited this system. These insects, in the family Coreidae, roam freely on one species of Acacia and feed on the plants' leaf tissue. Susan Whitehead of the University of Colorado wanted to know just what makes these bugs seemingly invisible to the watchdog ants. ...

Spring cold snap helps with stream ecosystem research

... stream to sunlight, resulting in increased growth," Mulholland said. "It's an unpredictable weather occurrence. On the other hand, we see that early leaf emergence has become predictable and has negative effects on the stream ecosystem during the critical spring period when many stream organisms are ...

Stunting plants' skyward reach could lead to improved yields

... plant scientist Beronda Montgomery seeks the key to unlock the processes by which stem growth is stimulated at the expense of seed, flower and leaf production. An assistant professor of biochemistry and molecular biology with the Plant Research Laboratory at MSU, Montgomery in July landed a ...

Ozone, nitrogen change the way rising CO2 affects Earth's water

... increased. Other studies have shown that increasing CO2 is changing how plant "pores," or stomata, discharge water. With elevated CO2 levels, leaf pores contract and sometimes close to conserve internal water reserves. This "stomatal conductance" response increases water use efficiency and ...

Desert rhubarb -- a self-irrigating plant

... noticed that its leaves are unusually large and covered with a waxy cuticle. They observed an exceptionally ridged structure on each leaf, forming a leaf structure that resembles the habitat's mountainous topography. The scientists explained that these deep and wide depressions in the leaves create ...

An easy way to find a needle in a haystack by removing the haystack

... were able to quickly and reliably determine more than 100 different analytes from single and small-sized samples. "The analysis of a very small plant leaf sample from Arabidopsis thaliana , in fact a circle area with a radius of just about 0.5 millimeter, revealed over a hundred analyte peaks, among ...
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