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Knockout in Biological News

Genetically engineered mice yield clues to 'knocking out' cancer

... mice without the neil1 gene (known as neil1 knockout mice). During their first 6-10 months of life, ... Jaruga and Gldal Kirkali found that both types of knockout mice exhibited significant accumulation of two ... and hepatocellular (liver cell) tumors. Double knockout mice had a higher incidence of tumors than the ...

Body weight influenced by thousands of genes

... Database for information on body weights of knockout mouse strains. knockout mice have had a specific gene inactivated, or "knocked out. By studying how the knockout mice differ from normal mice, researchers obtain ...

Ultraconserved elements in the genome: Are they indispensable?

... in the September, 2007 issue of PLoS Biology, the knockout mice in this study showed almost no ill effects ... what happens when they are missing. Instead, our knockout mice were not only viable and fertile but showed ... the researchers prepared four lines of knockout mice, each type lacking one of the chosen ...

Time (and PPAR-beta/delta) heals all wounds

... between layers of the skinthe epidermal hyperproliferation seen in the knockout mice could be due to faulty signals from the dermal cells. But this ... keep stimulating keratinocyte division. Similarly, PPARβ/δ knockout mice expressed less sIL-1ra after wounding and produced more growth ...

RING finger protein 5 may guide treatment for muscle disease in older adults

... Following this discovery, the team developed three mouse models: one knockout model in which the RNF5 gene was missing, and two in which cells could be ... within muscle and a variety of other organs. A comparison of normal and knockout mice exposed to muscle-damaging toxin showed slower healing in the ...

How does the opioid system control pain, reward and addictive behavior?

... an unexpected alteration of emotional reactivity in the delta-receptor knockout mice (Filliol et al 2000). The mutant mice demonstrated increased levels ... and nicotine, natural reinforcers) are abolished in the mu-receptor knockout mice. Blocking the mu-receptor may build a valuable approach for the ...

Gene-targeting pioneer Mario Capecchi shares 2007 Nobel Prize in Medicine

... Sweden. The prize recognizes Capecchis pioneering development of knockout mice technology, a gene-targeting technique that has revolutionized the ... freedom to manipulate the DNA sequences in the genome of living mice. knockout technology makes possible detailed evaluation of the function of every ...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

... of the mouse. Although the majority of mice exhibited no visible symptoms of C. difficile , the team found that one particular group of knockout mice with mutations associated with impaired immune defence began to lose weight and became moribund. The similarity with the human manifestation of ...

Mouse model provides clues to human language development

... supported and confirmed the findings. In a second step to further substantiate this hypothesis, the Helmholtz scientists analyzed the heterozygous knockout mouse model in which one of the normally two copies of the Foxp2 gene is missing. This loss leads to serious changes: The ability of the mice to hear ...

New findings in taste and smell

... in human tears β1,3-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (β3GnT1) regulates signaling in olfactory neurons CNGA2 heterozygous mice with a knockout TRPM5 show fewer glomeruli targeted by OSNs with nonfunctional CNGA2 Copy-number variation map obtained by high-resolution genomics reflects human ...

200,000 rice mutants available worldwide for scientific investigation

... the precise positions of mutations in the rice genome sequence, for each rice mutant plant. About 50 percent of the protein-coding genes have knockout mutations, which probably abolish their expression and can provide valuable information on the genes by virtue of their loss of function. This is a ...

200,000 rice mutants available worldwide for scientific investigation

... the precise positions of mutations in the rice genome sequence, for each rice mutant plant. About 50 percent of the protein-coding genes have knockout mutations, which probably abolish their expression and can provide valuable information on the genes by virtue of their loss of function. This is a ...

Decreasing insulin resistance prevents obesity-related cardiovascular damage

... and vascular remodeling. In an effort to figure out how, the researchers will look at blood flow, blood pressure and vascular remodeling in the PTP1B knockout mice. They want to identify aspects of nitric oxide signaling impaired in obesity and improved with reduced insulin resistance. "We are trying to ...

What happens when we sleep

... experience narcolepsy with cataplexy or sudden loss of mucle tone. However, the role of MCH neurons was until now, unclear. Evidence from earlier knockout studies suggested that MCH neurons might play a different role than Orx neurons in regulating activity and sleep-wake states. Therefore the team at ...

February 2009 highlights from Biology of Reproduction

... this issue, Sun et al. characterize the phenotype of mice genetically lacking FAAH, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Male mice homozygous for the Faah knockout have elevated levels of anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in the reproductive system, and their sperm have decreased ability to fertilize due to poor ...

A protein that protects against Alzheimer's?

... increased levels of ApoD had the best outcomes, with a better ability to combat the diseases and a higher survival rate than the unmodified mice. The knockout mice with no ApoD displayed the poorest outcomes. These experiments serve to illustrate the protective and reparative role of this protein. When ...

Claudin 11 stops the leaks in neuronal myelin sheaths

... to act as a good insulator. To examine this question, Devaux and Gow compared electrical recordings from the optic nerve of wild-type and claudin 11 knockout mice. They found that although claudin 11 deficiency caused no gross defects in the appearance of the myelin sheath, it slowed electrical signalsat ...

Purple tomatoes: The richness of antioxidants against tumors

... almost tripled in comparison to the natural fruit thus it is very useful to study the effect of anthocyanins". Subsequently, scientists have fed knockout mice lacking p53 gene, commonly known as the "genome guardian", with a powder obtained from purple tomatoes. P53 is a key gene in the ...

Embryonic heart exhibits impressive regenerative capacity

... impact the heart during development, Professor Timothy C. Cox (from the University of Washington in Seattle) and colleagues used a heart-specific knockout approach in mice to inactivate a gene crucial for normal mitochondrial function. Their experimental methods established embryonic female mice with ...

Clue to genetic cause of fatal birth defect

... is the most important site for HSD17b7 expression and provided evidence that anencephaly may result from the loss of this enzyme. "Creating a knockout mouse is a very laborious process," said Aurora Shehu, first author of the paper and at that time a graduate student in Gibori's laboratory. Mice ...

October 2008 Biology of Reproduction highlights

... information to the emerging story by demonstrating that DICER1 is required for normal spermatogenesis in the mouse. These authors used a conditional knockout (CKO) approach to delete Dicer1 in the germline. Because the CKO mice exhibited transient fertility, an elegant reporter strategy was used to ...

No helicopter moms among Rutgers mutant mice

... of the cage. Females with normally active stathmin, however, were quick to bring similarly dispersed pups back to the nest. In another experiment, knockout mice chose to rebuild nests in more vulnerable open spaces instead of in safe corners, where normal mice typically build nests. The abnormal ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... these molecular effects contribute most significantly to neurological effects, Kronenberg et al. examined the effects of folate deficiency in Ung knockout mice. They found that some effects of folate deficiency (notably, extensive degeneration of hippocampal CA3 neurons and increased despair- and ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- May 28, 2008

... 3065 Email: Adriana.bravo@empresas-polar.com ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Mother Natures antibacterial dyes: Bright colors and a knockout punch for germs Biotechnology Progress A strain of marine bacteria produces large amounts of bright red pigments that can be used as a natural ...

Brain study may lead to improved epilepsy treatments

... cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), causing increased synthesis of P-glycoprotein in these experiments. Increased transporter expression was abolished in COX-2 knockout mice or by COX-2 inhibitors. It has yet to be shown in animals or patients that targeting COX-2 will reduce seizure frequency or increase the ...

T-cadherin affects blood vessel growth in breast cancer, hormone from fat cells may play a role

... as equally contributing first authors and Drs. Robert Cardiff and Lawrence Young as collaborators from the University of California, Davis. But our knockout model clearly shows that T-cadherin plays a role in promoting tumor vascularization, with implications for tumor growth and animal survival. The ...

Weill Cornell team discovers how brain's own tPA helps regulate blood flow to neurons

... neuronal tPA. They tweaked the mouse's whiskers and watched blood flow in the area of the rodent's brain linked to whisker sensitivity. "In the knockout mouse, blood flow in that area did not change as much upon whisker stimulation -- confirming that tPA is necessary to boosting local blood flow," Dr. ...

Study helps explain how allergic reactions are triggered

... as being the exact gene that was encoding for this calcium channel. With the identification of this long-elusive gene, we were able to create a knockout mouse that lacked CRACM1, and [as predicted] these animals proved to be resistant to various stimuli that usually cause severe allergic reactions, ...

'Knocking out' cell receptor may help block fat deposits in tissues, prevent weight gain

... cell-signaling activities that caused the body to increase overall fat storage. Although both groups of mice were fed the same low-fat diet, the LRP1 knockout mice stored less fat and experienced no significant weight gain. This shows that LRP1 is a critical regulator of lipid absorption in fat cells. ...

When is a stem cell not really a stem cell?

... which form mostly neurons. They tested whether CBF1 was the critical switch by chemically knocking out the protein in neural stem cells. The knockout got the stem cells to rapidly convert to progenitor cells. However, if we activated the CBF1 protein in progenitor cells we couldnt get them to shift ...

Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

... a little disappointing at first," Chen says. "The knockout mice seemed to have the same reactions to painful ... in two sets of mice — normal mice and GRPR knockout mice. Normal mice scratched vigorously when ... a variety of itch-producing substances, but the knockout mice scratched much less. "The fact that ...

Minuscule molecules pack a powerful punch

... by study of one of the world’s first microRNA knockout mouse, reported Friday 27 April in Science. The ... vital role. Cells of the immune system in the knockout mice do not work as well as normal cells and the ... knockouts would have an effect in mice: previous knockout studies in nematode worms suggested that most ...

Major link in brain-obesity puzzle found

... that mice that lack the gene for SH2B1 -- called knockout mice -- become obese, diabetic, and unable to ... corrected the metabolic disorders that the knockout mice had developed, but also improved the brain ... the role of SH2B1 in fat cells, finding that the knockout mice that lacked the SH2B1 gene stored away much ...

Experimental drug reverses key cognitive deficits, pathology in Alzheimer's

... In their experiments, the researchers gave the knockout mice eight weeks of daily doses of AF267B and ... performed significantly better than untreated knockout mice on the task. Significantly, found the ... M1 receptors. They found that both normal and knockout mice treated with the drug showed the ...

Gene controls whether fear is a factor

... a critical role in both learned and innate fear. knockout mice, which lack the gene, show a decreased ... after a shock and later after hearing the tone, knockout mice reacted less strongly, they found, ... said. "This evidence suggests that stathmin knockout mice can be used as a model of anxiety states of ...

Knockout Mouse Project

... announced the selection of the hospital's research institute for the knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) on September 7, 2006. The $50 million initiative ... Hospital Oakland will create the genetic material that will be used to knockout or "inactivate" mouse genes. Scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger ...

Proteins anchor memories in our brain

... fact that several eye-specific proteins were missing in the thymus of Aire knockout mice. The team then went on to show that IRBP was expressed in the thymus under the control of Aire and that knockout mice lacking the IRBP protein were protected from the disease because they ...

Autoimmune disease triggered if T cells miss a single protein early on

... fact that several eye-specific proteins were missing in the thymus of Aire knockout mice. The team then went on to show that IRBP was expressed in the thymus under the control of Aire and that knockout mice lacking the IRBP protein were protected from the disease because they ...

Eat less, weigh more? Enzyme makes lean mice 'susceptible' to dietary fat

... gene protects against weight gain caused by a high-fat diet. So-called knockout mice lacking the CPT1c gene gain more weight than their littermates ... for four hours prior to feeding with standard laboratory mouse chow, the knockout mutant mice ate about 25 percent less food than their normal siblings. ...
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