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Structural biology scores with protein snapshot

... of the large bacterial protein diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK), a complex of three subunits that each ... the methods that we used for diacylglycerol kinase and applying them to high value targets such as G ... lab 17 years ago. DAGK is the smallest known kinase (a protein that adds chemical groups called ...

Enzyme doesn't act alone in atrial fibrillation

... Researchers knew that an enzyme called calmodulin kinase II is overactive in several heart diseases and ... rate is a very specific activator of calmodulin kinase II. The research team found that mice with the ... they used a drug to block activity calmodulin kinase II, and the mices' heart rates were raised, the ...

Key protein regulating inflammation may prove relevant to controlling sepsis

... Tergaonkar and his colleagues discovered that the kinase enzyme IκB kinase 2 (IKK2), which is known for causing inflammation ... entitled, "Phosphorylation of p53 by IκB kinase 2 promotes its degradation by β-TrCP," ...

New method for detection of phosphoproteins reveals regulator of melanoma invasion

... with mutations in the gene encoding the protein kinase B-Raf. Kinases are proteins that regulate the ... by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. Identification and characterization of MAP kinase target proteins is critical for understanding the ...

Rare disease provides clues about enzyme role in arrhythmias

... researchers showed that the enzyme, calmodulin kinase II (CaM kinase II), contributes to arrhythmia in an extremely ... by age 3, involves activation of the enzyme CaM kinase II. We also showed that inhibiting this enzyme ...

Scientists uncover Ebola cell-invasion strategy

... reactions called the phophoinositide-3 kinase pathway (named for an enzyme found in the cell membrane). By activating the PI3 kinase pathway, they found, an Ebola virus particle ... to reproduce itself. However, if the PI3 kinase pathway is shut down as the UTMB team did with a ...

Argyrin: Natural substance raises hope for new cancer therapies

... noted that mice in which the breakdown of the kinase inhibitor was suppressed by genetic change have a ... cell line in which the quantity of the cyclin kinase inhibitor can be measured using simple optical ... naturally also prevents the breakdown of the kinase inhibitor in question, the lack of which triggers ...

Researchers report the cloning of a key group of human genes, the protein kinases

... cloning of nearly all predicted human protein kinase genes in functional form, and generation of a ... University of Helsinki, they identified a novel kinase required for activation of Kaposis sarcoma herpesvirus. The isolated kinase genes form a resource that scientist can now use ...

Stopping unwanted cell death: Implications for drug discovery

... development. Our research found that RIP1 kinase can be inhibited by three small molecules: ... Sciences. Overall, these data establish RIP1 kinase as a new target for therapeutic drug development ... We were particularly interested in RIP1 kinase because it was previously reported by other ...

Stowers Institute's Hawley Lab identifies factors responsible for restart of meiotic cycle

... the oocyte several days to build-up enough Polo kinase to properly restart meiosis, and the newly made ... It is this precisely timed release of active Polo kinase that restarts meiosis. Matrimony is the first ... for treating infertility. Additionally, Polo kinase is strongly expressed in many types of tumor ...

Potential new therapeutic molecular target to fight cancer

... Center have identified the enzyme sphingosine kinase 2 as a possible new therapeutic target to improve ... cells and established a role of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), an enzyme that forms the potent lipid ... of expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. This p21 regulates the cell cycle, and ...

All eukaryotic kinases share 1 common set of substrates

... kinase mediated phosphorylation is generally recognised ... disorders. In addition, the elucidation of many kinase cascades has proved pivotal for understanding and ... The human genome contains over 500 protein kinase genes, whereas the genome of a small plant like ...

Protein can help cells or cause cancer, Purdue researcher finds

... professor of biochemistry, found that an overabundance of the polo-like kinase 1, or Plk1, molecule during cell growth, as well as a shortage of the p53 ... to treating that cancer." During cell growth, Plk1 uses its protein kinase activity called phosphorylation, which consists of adding a phosphate ...

Tumor suppressor gene in flies may provide insights for human brain tumors

... into a tumor mass. Dr. Wang's previous work had identified a protein kinase called Polo as a tumor suppressor. Because phosphatases like PP2A usually ... Follow-up experiments showed that PP2A is important for regulating Polo kinase function, and showed that these two critical brain tumor suppressors work ...

New piece found in the puzzle of epigenetics

... piece in the puzzle of epigenetics: They showed that the enzyme TFIIH kinase is involved in epigenetic regulation. The scientists were interested in ... research, the scientists led by Dirk Eick showed that the enzyme TFIIH kinase is responsible for the selective phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II. ...

CSHL-led team identifies key decision-point at which cells with broken DNA repair themselves or die

... end of the protein. David demonstrated that another kind of protein --a kinase called WSTF -- attaches phosphate to critical site, a tyrosine residue, at ... like PTPs that remove phosphate molecules from specific locations, and kinase enzymes that perform the reverse role that of adding phosphates. ...

Gene therapy reversed heart damage in heart failure

... works by inhibiting the activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). GRK2 is a kinase that is increased in heart failure myocardium. Enhanced GRK enzymatic ...

Post-exercise caffeine helps muscles refuel

... of several signaling enzymes, including the calcium-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase B (also called Akt), which have roles in muscle glucose uptake during and ...

Jefferson receives $11.6M NIH grant to study novel mechanisms of heart failure

... College, has found that a certain type of cancer drug called a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (including the very successful leukemia drug Gleevec), which ... to support the theory. Dr. Forces group will continue to test the tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs to better understand how they affect cardiac stem cells. ...

Fox Chase researchers discover a method for clamping down on a cancer-promoting enzyme

... of these pathways go through a single enzyme called the p21-activated kinase 1, or PAK1. Researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center have now identified ... PAK1 shares a molecular architecture similar to that found in many other kinase enzymes. Previous attempts to inhibit the PAK1 active site chemically have ...

Rong Li Lab reports protein interactions of MAP kinase signaling pathway

... protein-protein interactions in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade signaling pathway, which is critical to growth and differentiation ... cells. The paper, Mapping Dynamic Protein Interactions in the MAP kinase Signaling Using Live-Cell Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy and ...

Scientists uncover how hormones achieve their effects

... of Michael Knop and Philippe Bastiaens at EMBL labelled members of the MAP kinase signalling chain with fluorescent molecules and observed their diffusion ... of signalling processes and the way we need to study them. The MAP kinase signalling chain is conserved across species, and the insights gained in ...

Scientists uncork a potential secret of red wine's health benefits

... punch to stop inflammation in the mice by preventing the body from creating two different molecules known to trigger inflammation, sphingosine kinase and phospholipase D. This finding suggests that resveratrol may be harnessable as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and may also lead to entirely ...

Stress signals link pre-existing sickness with susceptibility to bacterial infection

... bacteria, Legionella . Cells with mitochondrial disease increase their production of a signaling protein called AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), to promote the generation of more energy producing mitochondria. Infectious bacteria, like Legionella , target the mitochondria and might ...

Protein that promotes cancer cell growth identified

... and invasion. The researchers also identified an RXDLL amino acid motif that controls the signaling from the EGF receptor through the protein kinase Src to the master cell proliferation regulator protein, MAPK. This same signaling pathway stimulates neuroblastoma cells to migrate and invade ...

Axel Ullrich named winner of 2009 Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research

... VEGFR) suppresses the generation of blood vessels in tumors and slows down cancer cell growth. Years later, a small molecule inhibitor of the VEGFR2 kinase function was developed, from which a derivative was approved in 2006 for the treatment of kidney carcinoma and gastro-intestinal stromal tumors. ...

Scientists uncover mode of action of enzyme linked with several types of cancer

... overexpressed in a broad range of human tumours, tells the chromosomes exactly when to condense during cell division." Misregulation of the polo kinase is associated with cancers, thereby suggesting a link between defects in chromosome condensation and the formation of tumours. "Pharmaceutical ...

New study finds lowfat chocolate milk is effective post-exercise recovery aid for soccer players

... of post-exercise beverage yet after two and four days of intensified training, chocolate milk drinkers had significantly lower levels of creatine kinase an indicator of muscle damage compared to when they drank the carbohydrate beverage. There were no differences between the two beverages in ...

Two new studies on circadian rhythms

... as well as being informative for the clock biology." In Cell , the researchers suggest a new role for the clockassociated enzyme, casein kinase (CK)2 as a key control for temperature compensation. Pursuing two uncharacterized circadian protein mutants shown to affect compensation in an ...

How an enzyme tells stem cells which way to divide

... UO's Institute of Molecular Biology. When a stem cell duplicates into daughter cells, the side, or cortical domain, containing aPKC (atypical protein kinase C) continues as a stem cell, while the other domain with Miranda becomes a differentiated cell such as a neuron that forms the central nervous ....

KINAXOs Cellular Target Profiling reveals mTOR as a new target of Celebrex

... / b3c newswire / - Kinaxo Biotechnologies GmbH has successfully applied its Cellular Target Profiling® technology to identify the protein kinase mTOR as a new cellular target of celecoxib (Celebrex®, Pfizer). Celecoxib is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory Cox-2 inhibitor approved for the ...

Regulation of cell proliferation by the OGF-OGFr axis is dependent on nuclear localization signals

... OGFr in both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments. The OGF-OGFr axis is known to regulate cell proliferation by modulating cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, resulting in a retardation of cells at the G1-S interface of the cell cycle. To address the question of the location and temporal ...

Burnham researchers present at 100th AACR Meeting

... to Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis and Chemical Biology Strategy Reveals Pathway-Selective Inhibitor of NFκB Activation Induced by Protein kinase C and Antigen Receptors. Changming Fang, Ph.D., who will also present two papers: Ileal Bile Acid Binding Protein Mediates the Chemopreventative ...

Computational model examines the pathways of Alzheimer's that strikes at the young

... development. Brain Plaque: A Major Instigator? The proteins presenilin-1 (PS1) (a mutated gene found in familial AD) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3) (a protein) and amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque (amino acids that are found in large quantity in AD) were studied to quantitatively examine ...

Computational model examines the pathways of Alzheimer's that strikes at the young

... development. Brain Plaque: A Major Instigator? The proteins presenilin-1 (PS1) (a mutated gene found in familial AD) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3) (a protein) and amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque (amino acids that are found in large quantity in AD) were studied to quantitatively examine ...

2009 ASPB Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship award announcement

... pollen tubes in Arabidopsis, has taught me the dedication necessary to continue in research. This project continues to explore an aspect of the AGC kinase family. By working with such great people, I have gained a solidified interest in plant biology. CATEGORY B David Valenta, Frostburg State ...

When cancer cells can't let go

... cancer cell has to keep a tight grip on the surface but also let go at the right moment to move ahead. Chan et al. reveal that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) coordinates these processes to permit forward movement. The study will be published online April 13 ( www.jcb.org ) and will appear in the ...

Mayo Clinic researchers discover and manipulate molecular interplay that moves cancer cells

... often leads to death from the disease. In the March 29 online issue of Nature Cell Biology , researchers say that a molecule known as protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is key to the ability of a tumor cell to "remodel" its structure, enabling it to migrate and invade. The researchers found that if PKD1 is ...

Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation awards prestigious fellowships to 13 top young investigators

... studying how specificity is maintained in cell signaling networks, with a particular focus on the role of molecules called scaffold proteins in MAP kinase signaling pathways. Defects in these pathways are often associated with cancer and other physiological disorders. ...

Researchers uncover 'obesity gene' involved in weight gain response to high-fat diet

... such as diabetes and liver damage, in humans. The researchers found that a diet rich in fat induced production of this gene, called protein kinase C beta (PKC beta), in the fat cells of mice. These mice rapidly gained weight while eating a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. On the other hand, mice ...
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