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Immunodeficiency in Biological News

Why some primates, but not humans, can live with immunodeficiency viruses and not progress to AIDS

... why some primates are able to live with an immunodeficiency virus infection without progressing to AIDS-like ... Following the identification of HIV (Human immunodeficiency Virus) as the cause of AIDS 25 years ago, an ... mangabeys are infected in the wild with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), whose transmission to humans and ...

NIH expands Human Microbiome Project; funds sequencing centers and disease projects

... Research Institute, Bethesda, Md. Skin and nose: Atopic Dermatitis, immunodeficiency Syndromes $400,000 The goal of this study is to examine the microbiomes ... associated with atopic dermatitis, and whether patients suffer from immunodeficiency syndromes. Gregory A. Storch, M.D., Washington University School of ...

Caltech scientists show why anti-HIV antibodies are ineffective at blocking infection

... spawned a worldwide search for an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), progress in the field seems to have effectively become ... story really starts to get interesting when we think about what the human immunodeficiency virus actually looks like," says Klein. Whereas a single influenza virus's ...

Potential new HIV drug may help patients not responding to treatment

... a molecule called D-1mT alongside Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). Simian immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) is very similar to Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and it is used to study the condition in animal models. In ...

UT pathologists believe they have pinpointed Achilles heel of HIV

... Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Texas Medical School at ... to host cells, which initiate infection and eventually lead to Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. Normally the body's immune defenses can ward off ...

Feline virus, antiviral drug studied to understand drug resistance

... research program investigating the impact of methamphetamine on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) one of only three animal viruses that can be used to mimick HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infections in humans. Surprisingly, that project showed that ...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... an immunological disorder called Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. "This finding provides a model for how Wiskott Aldrich syndrome a form of selective immunodeficiency in children occurs," said Dr. Hugo Bellen ( http://www.bcm.edu/db/db_fac-bellen.html ), professor of molecular and human genetics and director of ...

Novel vaccine approach offers hope in fight against HIV

... technology that produces molecules that block infection, the scientists protected monkeys from infection by a virus closely related to HIVthe simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIVthat causes AIDS in rhesus monkeys. "We used a leapfrog strategy, bypassing the natural immune system response that was the target of ...

HIV adapts to 'escape' immune response

... BIRMINGHAM, Ala. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) adapts so well to the body's defense system that any successful AIDS vaccine must keep pace with the ever-changing immunological profile ...

Gene therapy demonstrates benefit in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

... for a defective gene in the patient. The first clinical trial to test gene therapy was launched in 1990 for the treatment of a rare, genetic immunodeficiency disease. "This study helps extend gene therapy research to nongenetic, nonlethal diseases," explains principal investigator Christopher Evans, ...

UC Davis researchers exploring gene therapy to fight AIDS

... cure for AIDS based on replacing the devastated immune system of an HIV-infected patient with stem cells that have been engineered to resist human immunodeficiency syndrome. Bauer plans to present the preliminary results of his latest research at the 50th annual meeting of the American Society for Hematology ...

Researchers use chemical from medicinal plants to fight HIV

... telomerase activity and antiviral functions of CD8 T-lymphocytes suggests that this strategy could be useful in treating HIV disease, as well as immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to other viral infections associated with chronic diseases or aging," the researchers write. ...

Gene with probable role in human susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis identified

... report that the gene, named Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), which had been previously shown to recognize some factors from viruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), also has a probable role in human susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. The study also found that males are ...

Anti-HIV therapy boosts life expectancy more than 13 years

... BIRMINGHAM, Ala. The life expectancy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased by more than 13 years since the late 1990s thanks to advancements in antiretroviral therapy, according to researchers at ...

HIV infection stems from few viruses

... BIRMINGHAM, Ala. A new study reveals the genetic identity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the version responsible for sexual transmission, in unprecedented detail. The finding provides important clues in the ongoing search ...

Molecular basis for neurodegeneration in Ataxia telangiectasia

... issue of G&D lends new insight into the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in Ataxia telangiectasia. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare, genetic immunodeficiency disease that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by neurodegeneration and cancer predisposition. A-T is caused by recessive mutations ...

UC Davis researchers discover how HIV turns food-poisoning into lethal infection

... developed a novel technique that allowed them to study early intestinal responses to Salmonella infection in rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an established model for HIV infection. We found that animals that had no SIV infection were able to generate immediate responses to ...

Rebuilding the evolutionary history of HIV-1 unravels a complex loop

... An essential component of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) molecular machinery responsible for infecting cells consists of functionally-specialized layers, according to a study by investigators ...

Scientists decode genomes of diverse TB isolates

... in Tugela Ferry, a rural town in KwaZulu-Natal that has recently experienced a severe outbreak of XDR TB among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There, 52 of 53 people infected with this strain died. The research reflects a collaboration among researchers in the Microbial ...

Anthony S. Fauci awarded Lasker Award for Public Service

... of American Physicians for his work in clinical medicine, and the National Medal of Science, for his research into the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Dr. Zerhouni adds, It is fitting to have Tony recognized with a trifecta of awards related to the three fundamental NIH ...

Antiretroviral therapy may prevent excess risk of some cancers in people with HIV

... In people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), highly active antiretroviral therapy ... Institute. Studies of people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have reported increased risks of ... # Editorial: Engels EA, Goedert JJ. Human immunodeficiency ...

Analysis of rhesus monkey genome uncovers genetic differences with humans, chimps

... genome unique." The rhesus, because of its response to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), is widely recognized as the best animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The rhesus genome sequence will also serve to ...

AIDS vaccine research offers new insights on survival

... such as AIDS. Since it was first identified 25 years ago, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has proven extraordinarily difficult to control. Attempts to ... this new research found that among monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) -- 24 of which were vaccinated and six of which were not -- ...

HIV-1's high virulence might be an accident of evolution

... infected with the virus. While infection with related strains of "simian immunodeficiency virus" (SIV) is similarly rampant among many species of monkeys, naturally ... cut difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic infections with the immunodeficiency viruses," Kirchhoff added. "The observed difference in Nef function may ...

NHGRI announces latest sequencing targets

... studies. In addition, because it can be infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, a close cousin to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the rhesus is widely recognized as the best animal model for ...

Scientist-astronaut sends T-cells into space

... a central role in the body's immune response. They are a target of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which suppresses them. When an HIV patient's T-cell count ... susceptible to the dangerous infections that are the symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The problem of immunosuppression in microgravity was ...

Federal grant funds research on novel HIV therapy

... patients, the new grant focuses on a potential Achilles' heel in the human immunodeficiency virus: sites on immune cells known as neurokinin-1 receptors. In focusing ... test whether NK-1R antagonists are safe in animals infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which is analogous to HIV. This study aims to provide proof ...

UF scientist finds unexpected link between cat and human AIDS viruses

... used by veterinarians. The surprise finding may mean cats with feline immunodeficiency virus, also known as FIV or feline AIDS, could eventually be treated even ... AIDS . FIV is a natural infection of domestic cats that results in an immunodeficiency syndrome resembling HIV infection in humans. Since its discovery in 1987, ...

Norovirus, AIDS vaccine and Hepatitis Virus

... minimal need for refrigeration. In the study the DNA of a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) was made noninfectious by removing the gene that makes ... R. Hegde, F. Jia, I. Adany, O. Narayan. 2005. A noninfectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine that protects macaques against AIDS. Journal of ...

Elusive HIV shape change revealed; Key clue to how virus infects cells

... Boston and Harvard Medical School have shown how a key part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) changes shape, triggering other changes that allow the AIDS ... Boston Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, used the closely related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a stand-in for HIV. By aiming an X-ray beam through a ...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

... evolved to invade human cells and insert their DNA. In designing the new therapy, Kyrkanides’ team chose to work first with vectors based on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus that attacks the immune system of cats. It resembles HIV in humans, but is incapable of causing human infection. ...

'Nurse cells' make life and death decisions for infection-fighting cells

... cells, known as thymocytes or T cells, live in the thymus, an organ in the upper portion of the chest. Loss of the thymus results in severe immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infection. The function of T cells produced by the thymus is to recognize harmful invaders. Once invaders have been ...

HIV survival improves if patients stay in care

... in the June 1 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases and available on line. "In an era when highly active therapy directed against HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS) is keeping people alive, understanding the value of regular medical care is crucial," said Dr. Thomas Giordano, assistant ...

Jefferson scientists find rabies-based vaccine could be effective against HIV

... vaccines in preventing disease in rhesus macaques. One was a glycoprotein on the surface of HIV, while the other was an internal protein from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). They used the latter because HIV does not cause disease in monkeys. The idea was that such rabies?vehicles, or "vectors," would ...

Scientists find potential 'off-switch' for HIV virus

... the flick of a genetic switch. Princeton scientists Leor Weinberger and Thomas Shenk hope their work will illuminate the processes by which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses transition into dormant phases in their hosts. The researchers have discovered a specific genetic trigger that makes ...

Can engineered immune cells stop AIDS?

... Twenty years after its introduction, gene therapy still holds great promise as a way to harness the insidious power of viruses such as human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV). But scientists have yet to solve a vexing problem: developing an efficient transport system that is capable of delivering therapeutic ...

Researchers seek to design first treatment for neuroAIDS

... is the realization that antiviral drugs that work against AIDS do not cure neuroAIDS. As many as 900,000 Americans are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks immune cells and leaves patients vulnerable to infection. Before the arrival of modern antiviral therapies in 1996, HIV ...

Wild gorillas carriers of a SIV virus close to the AIDS virus

... O which infects humans (3), remained unidentified up to now. This team announces, in an article in the journal Nature, the discovery of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in wild gorillas. Samples of faeces collected from different communities of gorillas found in the remotest areas of the ...

HIV gets a makeover

... conundrum. The HIV-1 virus won't replicate in monkey cells, so researchers use a monkey virus -- known as SIVmac, or the macaque version of simian immunodeficiency virus -- to test potential therapies and vaccines in animals. But therapies and vaccines that are effective on SIV don't necessarily translate into ...
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