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Histones in Biological News

Study validates means to measure possible leukemia marker

... detected differences in the composition of histones in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells ... validated the technique, we can apply it to study histones as biomarkers that clinicians can use to make ... colleagues used LC-MS to analyze variations in histones in 40 CLL patients and four healthy patients. It ...

Scripps Research scientists shed light on how DNA is unwound so that its code can be read

... RSC can repeatedly pull DNA away from the histones and eventually expose all of the DNA." The ... into the next adjoining nucleosome, causing the histones to be ejected and exposing the DNA. ... gene before other cellular machinery scoop up the histones and repack the DNA until it needs to be read ...

Exploding chromosomes fuel research about evolution of genetic storage

... growth. In humans and mammals, proteins called histones partially neutralize the DNA's negative charge. When histones wrap themselves in DNA, they become nucleosomes. ... chromosomes, yet these organisms contain neither histones nor nucleosomes. "What takes care of neutralizing ...

Scientists clarify a mechanism of epigenetic inheritance

... in which DNA is spun around protein spools called histones and tightly packed into chromosomes that ... like beads on a string. These DNA-wrapped histones then form larger arrays. The densely packed mass ... its always been a mystery how modifications of histones could be inherited. A few years ago, however, his ...

Epigenetic research uncovers new targets for modification enzymes

... methyltransferases, add methyl groups to lysine amino acids within the histones and change their influence on gene expression. The newly identified ... called G9a adds methyl groups to other proteins in addition to histones and changes the behavior of those proteins. The researchers used a peptide ...

Tolerance to inhalants may be caused by changes in gene expression

... then documented changes in chromosomal structures called histones. histones are positively charged protein structures that bind to negatively charged ... charge of the histone more negative, "relaxing the grip" of the DNA to the histones in a part of the slo gene that controls its expression. When the ...

How schizophrenia develops: Major clues discovered

... genes to be turned on, temporary structural changes in certain proteins - histones - must take place to expose the genes' blueprints in DNA. The researchers ... schizophrenia, changes in Mll1 activity may interfere with this process in histones whose alterations enable the GAD1 blueprint to be exposed. The ...

Researchers expand efforts to explore functional landscape of the human genome

... by high-throughput DNA sequencing, this team will map modifications of histones in various types of human cells. histones are proteins that play a key role in DNA packaging. Gregory ...

Learning how the pieces responsible for interpreting the human genome work

... humans, which amounts to approximately two thousand (there are still many to be discovered). These proteins include transcription factors, chromatin histones responsible for packaging DNA in the nucleus of the cell -, and DNA repair and protective proteins; two thousand components with key functions in the ...

CSHL-led team identifies key decision-point at which cells with broken DNA repair themselves or die

... whose precise relation was not previously understood. The parts of the puzzle include a protein called H2A.X, one of a species of proteins called histones that form structures around which DNA is "spooled" for dense packing in the cell nucleus. "David Allis showed us that this particular histone, which ...

CSHL researchers explain process by which cells 'hide' potentially dangerous DNA segments

... can result in genetic anomalies and diseases such as cancer. Heterochromatin depends on the density of chemical "marks" that are added to histones at specific locations on their tail ends. These marks consist of methyl groups that get attached to the tail of one of the histones, histone H3, at a ...

Researchers 'unzip' molecules to measure interactions keeping DNA packed in cells

... researchers have performed the first direct, precise measurements of histone-DNA interactions. Their findings could help uncover how changes to the histones or DNA sequences affect how motor proteins access genetic information in cells. "If we have that knowledge, we can extrapolate that information to ...

Large DNA stretches, not single genes, shut off as cells mature

... the activity of thousands of genes in the liver and brain cells, they found that a particular modification in which two methyl groups clip onto histones seemed to silence long stretches of DNA containing many genes at once. The findings will publish in Nature Genetics online on Jan. 18. Since ...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

... method for silencing genes at the transcriptional level: DNA methylation, or adding chemical flags to genes, and modification of proteins called histones that act as spools for DNA. All eukaryotes share three essential RNA polymerases: Pol I, II, and III. These polymerases are indispensable for ...

Scientists discover key patterns in the packaging of genes

... of modified histone. The team's most recent research, published in the July 2008 issue of Nature Genetics, maps the DNA locations that bind to histones containing molecular configurations called acetyl groups at 18 different positions in the "tails" of the histone proteins. The scientists combined ...

Genome communication

... where the genome resides, is not full of strings of DNA like a pot of spaghetti. Rather, the strands of DNA are wrapped around proteins called histones and the whole is organized into an elegant and highly controlled structure called chromatin. When it is time for genes to be expressed, a section of ...

Controlling embryonic fate by association

... called Mta1 along with histone deacetylases. NODE associates with Nanog and Oct4 to control the fate of embryonic stem cells, said Songyang. histones are critical parts of genomic DNA structures or chromatins, acting as spools around which the genetic material winds in the nucleus. The DNA wraps ...

Shilatifard Lab sheds light on molecular machinery required for translation of histone crosstalk

... of childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Histones are important components of chromatin, the packing material surrounding chromosomal DNA. Also, histones play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone H3 can be modified by methylation and this modification is an essential part of ...

Einstein researcher receives NIH grant to explore epigenetic regulation of the human genome

... and map the two principal epigenetic control mechanisms: methylation of cytosine (one of four nucleic acids found in DNA) and modifications of histones (proteins that help to package DNA into chromosomes). The methylation (addition of a methyl group, CH3) of cytosine switches genes off, which can be ...

Human embryonic stem cells remain embryonic because of epigenetic factors

... in highly specialized, mature adult cells. Although epigenetic markers attach themselves to the tightly wound bundle of protein material called histones that package and compress the DNA in the nucleus of each human cell, they do not change the cells DNA code. Therefore, epigenetic markers are not ...

Revealing the machinery underlying the 'plastic' juvenile brain

... chemical alterations in substances called histones that were not triggered in the adult brains. Such histones are protein components of the spools around which DNA winds in chromosomes, and alterations of histones can render the DNA accessible to the machinery ...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

... a set of proteins known as histones; four similar histones join together to form a cylindrical spool around ... codes for proteins that chemically modify certain histones in the nucleosomes. Su(var)3-9 proteins ... "Multiply modified at various locations, these histones are a major factor in changing the functions of ...

Researchers find protein that silences genes

... It can remove the acetyl groups from multiple histones and from multiple lysines of those histones" said ... the silencing involves both modifications of histones and changes in DNA methylation, and that HDA6 ... the other. For instance, in modifying the histones a pathway is set in motion to recruit enzymes to ...

New mechanism for essential genome-wide gene silencing identified

... showed that a protein called SUMO binds to histones and acts to repress transcription of genes, and ... "In our experiments, we saw SUMO binding to histones across the genome, suggesting that if this ... effect," says Berger. "We know, for example, that histones are important in a number of cancers, and SUMO ...

Novel enzyme offers new look at gene regulation

... had been regarded as irreversible. "That histones can become methylated has been known for over ... with DNA, even slight chemical alterations of histones can have profound effects on nearby genes. ... to isolate proteins that could remove methyl from histones inside a test tube. The result was the ...

Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability

... how DNA is managed and its activity regulated. histones are small proteins around which DNA is coiled to ... is repressed. When the coils of DNA around the histones are loosened or the histone molecules are ... Ubp10 contributes. Enzymatic modifications to histones control DNA activation or silencing through the ...

Beyond the DNA: Chemical signatures reveal genetic switches in the genome

... architecture in human cells and discovered distinct signatures of modified histones that correspond to known promoters and enhancers. These findings enabled ... of this approach is that it utilizes a chemical signature present on histones but not DNA. Existing methods to predict enhancers rely on the DNA ...

Protein helps regulate the genes of embryonic stem cells

... to the histone protein. The prevailing model is that methylation on histones serves as a docking site for proteins that "read" this histone ... of the histone modification, any given gene associated with modified histones is marked to be turned on or off. In the study, eed is the first ...

Man and mouse share genome structures

... is then compressed into a working chromosome. Chemical tags placed on the histones alter the way chromatin is organized, thus allowing the right combination ... Bernstein believes. For example, proteins that place methyl groups on histones can, when mutated, cause leukemia. Bernstein hopes to apply the new ...

Nanoscale microscope sheds first light on gene repair

... our ability to visualize and quantify nuclear proteins in 3D." Bewersdorf, Bennett and Knight examined a protein called H2AX, a kind of histone. histones are structural proteins that act as spools around which DNA is wound, and they can also play roles in gene regulation and gene repair. H2AX is an ...

Novel regulatory mechanism identified for key tumor suppressor p53

... this is one of only a small number of studies to identify methylation as playing a role in regulating the activity of proteins that are not histones. histones are relatively small proteins around which DNA is coiled to create structures called nucleosomes. Compact strings of nucleosomes, then, form into ...

Single molecular 'mark' seen as pivotal for genome compaction in spores and sperm

... understand genome compaction during the production of mature sperm." The molecule in question is a phosphorous molecule that modifies a histone. histones are relatively small proteins around which DNA is coiled to create structures called nucleosomes. Compact strings of nucleosomes, then, form into ...

University of Minnesota researchers take new look at cellular suicide

... around regularly spaced histones, which not only support the DNA but play various roles in managing its functions. "In the past, people thought histones were just for packaging DNA," said Dong, who studied a histone named H2AX. "People believe H2AX plays a role in DNA repair. But we find that if DNA ...

Loosen up, DNA: Leukemia gene changes genetic packaging

... DNA strands safe. Our DNA contains tens of thousands of genes along the seven feet of DNA that is spooled up very tightly around proteins called histones in the nucleus of nearly every cell in our bodies. The whole structure, called chromatin, looks much like a narrow thread wound tightly around a ...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

... Pol IVa and Pol IVb, and then seek out the DNA sequences that match the siRNAs. At these sites, the chromatin remodeler DRD1 presumably bulldozes histones and other proteins out of the way to make the DNA accessible for methylation by the de novo cytosine methyltransferase, DRM2. A paradoxical ...

UCR chemist part of team identifying new areas of gene regulation

... focuses on observations of histones, the proteins that regulate genetic expression and form the major supporting structures housing the cell's DNA. histones interacting with each other form a 'spool' around which DNA is wrapped in the cell. Grunstein, one of the scientists in the current team, discovered ...
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