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Helper in Biological News

GARP makes the difference

... regulatory T cells (Tregs), a special group of helper T cells, an important cell type of the immune ... Until now, distinguishing between Tregs and helper T cells has represented a problem for scientists. ... constitutes the key difference between Tregs and helper T cells. Furthermore, the scientists have also ...

When acute hepatitis develops into chronic hepatitis

... incidence and species of special defence cells, T helper cells, along with their role in the development ... liver tissue in the process. Subspecies of the T helper cells play a decisive role in achieving this ... team of research scientists examined how these T helper cells influence the development of the hepatitis ...

TRAPping proteins that work together inside living cells

... the polymerase proteins has a tail that is known to touch the DNA and some helper proteins just before the polymerase starts translating. No one knew if ... interacts with many other proteins, for example previously identified helper proteins, so-called transcription factors. But they also found it on ...

Wielding microbe against microbe, beetle defends its food source

... forest boring tunnels inside the bark of trees, it brings with it both a helper and a competitor. The helper is a fungus that the insect plants inside the tunnels as food for its ...

UC Davis researchers discover how HIV turns food-poisoning into lethal infection

... of a type of white blood cell, called Th-17, in the gut mucosa. This T helper lymphocyte produces IL-17, a cytokine or chemical messenger that plays a ... is a gradual loss of CD4+ T cells over time. These cells, also called T helper cells, organize the immune systems attack on disease-causing invaders, ...

Mother's little helpers

... smaller, less nourishing eggs when it breeds in the presence of other helper birds that provide child-care assistance. This unique adaptation enables ... this phenomenon occurs in other cooperative breeding bird species. helper birds offer mothers a form of child-care, says Dr Rebecca Kilner from the ...

Rampant helper syndrome

... carbon dioxide. This releases the energy that makes life possible at all. Proteins cannot perform these functions on their own. They depend on small helper molecules. Such molecules are stored inside special pockets in the proteins and carry out essential metabolic functions. The living organism itself ...

CSHL-led team identifies key decision-point at which cells with broken DNA repair themselves or die

... is critical in regulating cellular signaling in normal and disease conditions. In effect, important kinds of cellular signals can't be sent without helper enzymes like PTPs that remove phosphate molecules from specific locations, and kinase enzymes that perform the reverse role that of adding ...

New origin found for a critical immune response

... said Michael Gunn, M.D., an immunologist and cardiologist at Duke and senior author of the study published in Nature Immunology . Type 1 helper (TH1) T cell immune responses are critical for the control of viruses and certain bacteria. Immunologists have generally believed that TH1 responses ...

Einstein scientists receive $10 million NIH grant

... gradual deterioration of cognitive function, to the failure with age of two essential immune functions (antigen processing and presentation, and T helper cell activation and tolerance), and to abnormalities in lipid metabolism "These studies will involve the cooperation of all four of us on the ...

New insights into a leading poultry disease and its risks to human health

... have discovered a new way that plasmids use to move from one bacteria to another. This system consists of hijacking the transfer machinery of other helper plasmids present in the same bacteria. To create a vaccine for the USDA project, the APEC genes would be shuttled into the Salmonella bacteria in ...

CSHL scientists discover new way in which ubiquitin modifies transcriptional machinery

... (CSHL) has now discovered a mechanism, which, according to Professor William P. Tansey, Ph.D., "provides a paradigm for how the components [of the helper complex] could be disassembled and how the complex falls apart." Their results will appear in the December 16th issue of Proceedings of the National ...

Fountain of Youth to be found in the anthill?

... Harpegnathos saltator (literally meaning "jumping sickle jaw") is a primitive species of ant where workers are able to perform either reproductive or helper tasks. A worker can become a reproductive functional queen, if the original queen dies or is removed. Such a trait is not found in "higher" order ...

A molecular switch turns on the flame in 'nature's blowtorch'

... correct orientation for the oxidation, and the oxygen can be activated to do "the burn." The activated form of the molecule is generated by binding a helper protein, called Pdx, to the P450. This binding drives the reorientation around the peptide bond, and moves the P450 from the form in which substrate ...

Novel antigen-cloning technique may boost efforts to develop a melanoma vaccine

... the body's most critical immune responders, the helper T cells. Though helper T cells contain receptors on their cell surfaces ... a novel way to clone an antigen recognized by a helper T cell. Already, Herlyn's group has used the new ...

Cancer vaccines -- Taking a jab at cancer by stimulating the immune system

... tumor cells, and one peptide that stimulates helper T cells. Altogether, it is an approach ... T cells into action, but also influences the helper T cells, which are instrumental in sustaining the ... are delivered alone or in combination with a helper T cell-activating peptide that is either specific ...

AIDS vaccine research offers new insights on survival

... New insights into how a subpopulation of helper T-cells provides immunity and promotes survival ... new way of looking at subpopulations of CD4 helper T-cells and suggest how they may be used as a ... he adds. "We know this because the loss of helper T-cells is much less dramatic, the amount of ...

Research reveals inner workings of immune system 'thermostat'

... by a class of white blood cells known as T helper 1 cells. The team then traced secretion of ... They found that Interleukin 10 production by T helper 1 cells is triggered by Interferon-γ***but not ... or APC, sends a stimulatory signal back to the T helper 1 cell, ordering it to make Interleukin 10. ...

A new tool against brain disease

... directly attack viruses, but did not investigate helper T cells, which mobilize the immune system against ... patient's viral load and the lower the count of helper T cells, said Walker. When they ... also found that blocking PD-1 restored helper T cell function. "This was the most striking ...

How HIV 'exhausts' killer T cells

... directly attack viruses, but did not investigate helper T cells, which mobilize the immune system against ... patient's viral load and the lower the count of helper T cells, said Walker. When they ... also found that blocking PD-1 restored helper T cell function. "This was the most striking ...

A Jekyll and Hyde of cytokines: IL-25 both promotes and limits inflammatory diseases

... or hurtful depending on how it interacts with T helper cells, a subset of immune cells that influences ... "These studies show that IL-25 promotes type 2 T helper cells that drive the type of response required ... destructive inflammation caused by inflammatory T helper cells commonly found in diseases like ...

Chemical guidance of T cells leads to immunologic memory and long-term immunity

... cells that have been properly stimulated by helper T cells? Dr. Germain and his colleagues ... dendritic cells interact in specific fashion with helper T cells, the activated cell pair releases the ... in on the dendritic cells interacting with the helper T cells. The result was a marked impairment of ...

Fox Chase Cancer Center scientists identify immune-system mutation

... white blood cells, or lymphocytes, called helper T cells. The report by Kappes and his colleagues ... of lymphocyte development, according to Kappes. helper T cells, so called because they arise from the ... one of two different pathways, going on to become helper cells or killer cells," Kappes said. His goal is ...

Living view in animals shows how cells decide to make proteins

... so, in which tissues and organs -- or whether other types of silencers or helper proteins were involved. By tracking the green glow, the team found ... to silence exon IIIb, but the cells used a variety of silencers and helper proteins to accomplish this task, said Vivian I. Bonano, a graduate ...

Scientists directly view immune cells interacting to avert autoimmunity

... are absent, the potentially destructive autoreactive T cells, known as T helper cells, swarm around the dendritic cells where they are primed to attack ... that Treg cells prevent this destructive response after they and the T helper cells independently interact with dendritic cells. The mechanism of this ...

Breast tumors in mice eradicated using cancer vaccine

... These egress to the cell surface, where they expand and activate helper T cells, which are enlisted into the immune response. But Listeria has ... the MHC class II pathway of antigen presentation with the induction of helper T cells, others survive by escaping into the cytosol of the cell. This is ...

Study: Harmless virus kills some cancers

... associated cervical cancer. In general, AAV2 requires association with a helper virus in order to replicate. When it finds a helper virus, such as HPV, AAV2 disrupts the life cycle of the host and induces ...

New tool reveals secrets of migrating cells

... these are cells that have received a signal committing them to be either a helper T cell - which aids other immune cells in fighting infections - or a ... Cells Undergo Chemotaxis toward the T Zone and Form Motile Conjugates with helper T Cells Directed Migration of Positively Selected Thymocytes ...

St. Jude study shows genes play an unexpected role in their own activation

... nerve-signaling molecules called neurotransmitters. The St. Jude team showed that each gene that responds to CREB chooses which co-factors, or helper molecules, CREB uses to activate that gene. This finding adds an important piece to the puzzle of how cells use CREB to activate specific genes in ...

Cancer researchers add spice to research against rare neuromuscular disease

... to the health of motor neurons. Chang's team found that ASC-J9 breaks up the clumps by separating the androgen receptor from some of its helper molecules, or co-factors. As the clumps dissolve, CBP moves throughout the cell as it normally would, producing more VEGF. Ultimately, the work ...

Quality not quantity important for immune response to HIV

... response generated by the body to fight infection. There are a number of different types of T cells, each playing a different role in this battle. helper T-cells (HTCs) regulate the body's immune response and it is the loss of these cells that leads to the development of AIDS. Another type of T ...

UCLA researchers develop T-cells from human embryonic stem cells

... of Sciences, found that it is possible to convert human embryonic stem cells into blood-forming stem cells that in turn can differentiate into the helper T-cells that HIV specifically targets. T-cells are one of the body's main defenses against disease. The results mark the first time that ...

Wild meerkats school their young

... was reluctant to handle the prey, the older meerkat would nudge the item towards them to encourage it. Additionally, if the prey wondered off the helper would retrieve the item and return it to the pup, sometimes further disabling it before returning it to the young meerkat. The researchers, Alex ...

Flick of whiskers helps tease out brain's 'shadow' signaling system

... of everyday higher cognitive functioning that defines who we are as humans," she said. For years astrocytes have been related to the status of helper to the neurons, which rely on astrocytes to bring nutrients and to clean up after them. While scientists have known that neurons fire electrically in ...

Researchers seek to solve mystery of natural HIV control

... of the virus with their immune systems alone. Unless antiviral medications are used, the virus continues to reproduce until it overwhelms the CD4 T helper cells, suppressing the immune response and leading to AIDS. In the early 1990s, it was recognized that a small minority of HIV-positive people ...

Greasing interferon's gears may pave way to greater therapeutic benefits, fewer side effects

... essentially raising the speed limit on signal transmission. "Ordinarily, the interferon signaling system's rate may be slowed because this helper protein interacts with Stat1 at less than the maximum amount," Holtzman says. "It's possible that the maximal setting would be harmful in the long ...

Helping in a selfish world

... work as a kind of rent payment," says Stiver. Like in a commune or a kibbutz where non-relatives work together to achieve a common goal, these helper fish donate their time and energy to the group in exchange for the safety of living within the group. In a sense, these tiny African fish take a ...

NIAID begins clinical trial of West Nile virus vaccine

... two WNV proteins. Recognizing that the proteins are foreign, the muscle cells display them on their surface to alert the body's immune system--both helper T cells, which spur the production of antibodies to block the WNV from gaining entry into cells, and killer T cells, which kill WNV-infected cells ...
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