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Helix in Biological News

Scripps research scientists 'watch' as individual alpha-synuclein proteins change shape

... back and forth of the protein between a bent helix and an extended helix as the surface that it is binding to changes. ... of the alpha-synuclein kept pace the extended helix could latch onto lipid-mimics as monomers or in a ...

The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA

... breaks in the two strands of the DNA double helix is critical for avoiding cancer. In humans and ... break is also common and occurs when a DNA helix is forking or "unzipping" during replication; if ... The branching complex binds to the single helix that is unraveling at the point where forking has ...

Genetic switch potential key to new class of antibiotics

... DNA or RNA chains. When the riboswitch twists into the well-known double helix structure, the RNA composing part of its structure aligns the bases in its ... causes the chain to fold back and bind to itself to form a double helix that ends in a loop like a lollipop. The current study revealed some ...

Chemists make beds with soft landings

... are of a variety that normally take the shape of a coiled spring or helix in gas phase. The method used by PNNL's Julia Laskin and Peng Wang ... ended the alanine chain with the amino acid lysine, which stabilizes the helix and allows the coiled chain to be chemically attached to the surface. ...

EuroDYNA takes lid off the genome

... within EuroDYNA concerned the detailed structure of how the DNA double helix is folded in the nucleus of higher organisms. Although the double helix structure was discovered by Crick and Watson in 1953, the way it folds and ...

Electronic structure of DNA revealed for 1st time by Hebrew University and collaborating researchers

... occurs spontaneously via an electronic charge transfer along the DNA helix that restores the damaged molecular bonds. In nano-bioelectronics, ... These results also suggest an identification of the parts of the double helix that contribute to the charge flow along the molecule. ...

Liquid crystal phases of tiny DNA molecules point up new scenario for first life on Earth

... tendencies, he said. We found that even tiny fragments of double helix DNA can spontaneously self-assemble into columns that contain many ... enable the chains to pair up and form the widely recognized double helix structure. Genetic information is encoded in sequences of thousands to ...

Finding that 1-in-a-billion that could lead to disease

... a role in the search process of UDG. Although the bases in the DNA double helix resemble the rungs of a ladder, the rungs are not that sturdy, says Stivers. They actually pop in and out of the helix a bit, randomly. Each time a base pops out of the helix, it exposes ...

Climbing to new heights in the forest canopy

... and is a topic of much ongoing research involving biophysics. After contacting a support, the stem of twining plants winds and forms a helix around the supporting structure. In leaf-climbers, the leaves bend and clasp the supporting structure; while in tendril-bearing plants, the tendrils ...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

... Arya said. "The scientific community is quite fascinated by DNA and they tend to forget that DNA is rarely present in its naked double-stranded helix form in higher organisms like humans, but that it is always associated with proteins in this complex aggregate we call chromatin," he added. ...

What scientists know about jewel beetle shimmer

... in that its straight cells sit on or are used to form the curved structure of its external skeleton. Research shows that when the pitch of the helix of cholesteric liquid crystals is close to the wavelength of visible light, they reflect light with specific wavelengths, leading to brilliant ...

Baylor researchers unravel mystery of DNA conformation

... as replication, transcription and recombination and allows the code to be read. And back to the idea of the "perfect spring" behavior of the DNA helix - "This notion is entirely wrong," said Zechiedrich. "Underwinding is not equal and opposite to overwinding, as predicted, not by a long shot, that's ...

Lithium may help radiation target cancer, spare healthy tissue

... DNA of healthy cells. One of the most serious types of DNA damage is the chromosomal double-stranded break (DSB), in which both strands of the double helix are severed. Even a single unrepaired DSB can be lethal to a cell. Fortunately, the body has several different ways to repair DNA damage. Xia, ...

A genomic CluE for cloud computing

... Pop. A Different Kind of Puzzle DNA is made up of nucleotide bases that are abbreviated by the letters A, C, G, and T. Lined up in a double helix structure, they make up a code that is translated into the proteins that run our body processes. New technology can read this code and compare the ...

New nucleotide could revolutionize epigenetics

... in the past decade has drawn attention to a fifth nucleotide, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), that sometimes replaces cytosine in the famous DNA double helix to regulate which genes are expressed. And now there's a sixth. In experiments to be published online Thursday by Science , researchers reveal an ...

New book, 'Untangling the Double Helix,' explores enzymes responsible for maintaining genome integrity

... history of topoisomerases, their mechanisms of action, and their use and potential as therapeutic targets. The book, entitled Untangling the Double helix , has just been released by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. "The primary motivation for [writing this book] is that, despite the gradual ...

Covering the bases: Quantum effect may hold promise for low-cost DNA sequencing, sensor applications

... ladder rungs of the DNA's double helical structure. Most of these require snipping DNA into hundreds of thousands of short fragments, unzipping the helix and reading a few hundred to a few thousand bases at a time. Finally, all of the information from the DNA pieces is reassembled into a picture of ...

Researchers 'unzip' molecules to measure interactions keeping DNA packed in cells

... Trying to understand what happens during that unwrapping process is at the heart of this research team's efforts. By unzipping each DNA double helix through a nucleosome using an optical trap -- a technique developed in Wang's lab -- they unwrapped strands of DNA from their histone cores, ...

Biologists discover link between CGG repeats in DNA and neurological disorders

... Past research from Mirkin's lab had shown that peculiar long DNA sequences named palindromes change the shape of the molecule from a double helix into a hairpin-like structure and, as a result, stall replication. When this happens chromosomes can break during cell division. For the new ...

Caltech scientists show function of helical band in heart

... apex--which, despite its name, is actually at the very bottom of the heart--and then travels up through the myocardium. "The only time the whole helix shows up in the images is at the end of systole, which is when the heart is contracting," says Gharib. "This simple band structure is akin to an ...

Columbia to award 2008 Horwitz Prize to Arthur Horwich & Ulrich Hartl for cellular protein folding

... disease and function. Using X-ray crystallography, Dr. Franklin obtained the data that James Watson and Francis Crick used to develop the double helix model of DNA. However, the contributions of Dr. Franklin were never recognized with a Nobel Prize because she died 50 years ago at the age of 37, ...

Structures of important plant viruses determined

... length, the subunit size, and the axial repeat gives the number of subunits per turn." According to Stubbs, "The number of molecules per turn in the helix is the key. It allowed us to determine which structure of the alternatives we'd come up with from other techniques was correct." One surprise was ...

Study helps pinpoint genetic variations in European Americans

... Troy, N.Y. An international team of researchers has identified just 200 positions within the curves of the DNA helix that they believe capture much of the genetic diversity in European Americans, a population with one of the most diverse and complex historic origins ...

Scientists discover key patterns in the packaging of genes

... the genetic material, is packed in the nucleus of cells. When packed very tightly around complexes of proteins called histones, the DNA double helix is rendered physically inaccessible to molecules that mediate gene expression. Now, a research team that includes Michael Q. Zhang, Ph.D., a ...

Leiden scientists sequence first female DNA

... History In 2001, the DNA sequence was published of a combination of persons. The DNA sequences of Jim Watson, discoverer of the DNAs double helix structure, followed in 2007, and later the DNA of gene hunter Craig Venter. Recently the completion of the sequences of two Yoruba-Africans was ...

Scientists make chemical cousin of DNA for use as new nanotechnology building block

... and Biochemistry. We wanted to build synthetic molecules that assembled like DNA, but had additional properties not found in natural DNA. The DNA helix is made up of just three simple parts: a sugar and a phosphate molecule that form the backbone of the DNA ladder, and one of four nitrogenous bases ...

Analysis of RNA role in spreading disease advances study of damaging plant infections

... kind of pathogen. It doesnt make any proteins or have any protein coat. Its just a piece of RNA. Unlike the better-known DNA structure a double helix with base pairs of nucleotides connecting the strands many RNAs are formed by a single strand that folds back in on itself. As a result, the RNA ...

Iowa State researchers help piece together the corn genome's first draft

... corn genome is an especially difficult jigsaw puzzle to put together, Schnable said. There are some 2.5 billion base pairs that make up the double helix of corn DNA. The corn genome also has long lines of repetitive code. And corn has 50,000 to 60,000 genes to identify and characterize. Thats about ...

How did chemical constituents essential to life arise on primitive Earth?

... from generation to generation. First isolated in 1869 from the pus of discarded surgical bandages by Friedrich Miescher, a Swiss doctor, DNAs double helix structure was solved by Watson and Crick in 1953. DNA is shaped somewhat like a twisted ladder with the rungs anchored by matching pairs of only four ...

ESF EURYI award winner aims to stop cancer cells reading their own DNA

... growing into a larger tumor, said Dekker. This molecular copying machinery, constructed mostly out of proteins, in effect walks along the DNA double helix reading the genetic code so that it can be copied accurately into new DNA during division. Other components of the machinery are responsible for ...

Surprise finding for stretched DNA

... of us realize just how tightly that famous double helix is wound. Stretched to its full length, a single ... as a molecule of DNA is stretched, its double helix starts to unwind. As much sense as this makes ... the 30 picoNewton threshold, the DNA double helix did begin to unwind in accordance with ...

Stretching DNA to the limit

... measurements on viral DNA, which show the unraveling of the DNA double helix upon exposure to UV irradiation. The researchers essentially pick up ... viral DNA exposed to UV light are due to the local unwinding of the double helix in some regions arising from the massive formation of crosslinked ...

'Accelerated evolution' converts RNA enzyme to DNA enzyme in vitro

... because it relies on the one-to-one correspondence of the double helix pairing, transferring catalytic function is significantly more difficult ... the Nobel laureate who, along with James Watson uncovered the double helix structure of DNA, articulated in 1970, all known organisms operate ...

Tamoxifen-like drug suggests new ways to selectively block estrogen

... pushes one small part of the estrogen receptor, a peptide spiral called helix 12, out of place. By shifting helix 12 to an odd spot, GW5638 disrupts the ways in which several other ...

Papers of DNA Pioneer and Nobel Laureate Francis Crick Added to National Library of Medicine’s Profiles in Science Web Site

... Don't miss Crick's sketch of the DNA double helix . This latest collection on Profiles in ... linked to the discovery of the double helix of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 1953, ... of the National Library of Medicine. “The double helix has not only reshaped biology, it has become a ...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes modulates mRNA transcription

... online journal PLoS ONE. "These findings challenge the way we look at DNA," says Stoynov. "Until now we have pretty much simplified our view of DNA helix as a Lego combination of four different pieces, which encodes genetic information and contain patterns, recognized by DNA binding proteins. However, ...

Uncovering DNA's 'sweet' secret

... "rungs" tenuously uniting the two halves - seems to be the work of an accomplished sculptor. Yet the graceful, sinuous profile of the DNA double helix is the result of random chemical reactions in a simmering, primordial stew. Just how nature arrived at this molecule and its sister molecule, ...

Comments, experts and background on the 2006 Nobel Prize in chemistry

... in a group of organisms that includes humans. In doing so, Kornberg focused on a process termed transcription. It begins when the DNA double helix unzips so that one strand can be used as a template in creating a strand of messenger-RNA. The messenger-RNA then carries DNA's information out to ...

Brown scientists map structure of DNA-doctoring protein complex

... of the DNA within this complex. Pictured on the cover of the Nov. 17, 2006, journal Molecular Cell, it looks like DNA dressed for a party, a double helix decked with clumps of curly, colorful ribbon. By solving this structure, scientists now know how these six proteins interact with each other and fold ...
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