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Gradient in Biological News

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

... traffic from this source to form a concentration gradient across each leaf. This graded distribution ... their movement establishes a concentration gradient that patterns a developing tissue such that cells ... ta-siRNAs similarly generate a concentration gradient that divides the developing leaf into a top and ...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

... traffic from this source to form a concentration gradient across each leaf. This graded distribution ... their movement establishes a concentration gradient that patterns a developing tissue such that cells ... ta-siRNAs similarly generate a concentration gradient that divides the developing leaf into a top and ...

Scientists trace molecular origin of proportional development

... Bicoid, which comes from the mother, then forms a gradient along this body axis. Dr. Ma and his ... size and Bicoid amount helps Bicoid establish a gradient scaled precisely according to each embryo's ... 28 wild-type embryos showed even a precise Bicoid gradient still has positional errors that go beyond the ...

'Microfluidic palette' may paint clearer picture of biological processes

... Rembrandt, Van Gogh and other artists often begin with the creation of a gradient of colors on a palette. In a similar manner, researchers at the National ... into the three inlets of the system. For each dye, an independent gradient forms that remains constant as long as flow rate into the system does not ...

Study by NTU professors provides important insight into apoptosis or programmed cell death

... in the cytoplasm (the body enveloping the cell's nucleus). It is this gradient of RanGTP that exist across the nuclear-cytoplasmic boundaries that serves ... when the concentration of RanGTP is reduced in the nucleus, the RanGTP gradient collapses and the nuclear transport machinery subsequently shuts down. ...

Scripps expedition provides new baseline for coral reef conservation

... from microbes to sharks. This in-depth description was replicated across a gradient of human impacts, from uninhabited Kingman Reef to Kiritimati, also called ... from the smallest to the largest organisms, is described across a gradient of human habitation, said Enric Sala, who led the 2005 expedition and is a ...

A greenhouse in order to study the impact of climate change on plants

... The University of Navarra has installed a thermal gradient greenhouse in order to study the impact of climate change on plants. This ... conditions, with cameras to record growth, and currently with thermal gradient greenhouses, which permit undertaking studies on specific types of climate ...

Did the North Atlantic fisheries collapse due to fisheries-induced evolution?

... Using molecular population genetics, the authors reports steep changes in the frequency of genotypes at a single genetic locus with depth: a gradient of nearly one half percent drop in frequency per meter. The genotypes at the locus are directly related to behavioral types that select deep vs ...

Plants take a hike as temperatures rise

... the UA's department of soil, water, and environmental science, and Bertelsen will publish their paper, "Flowering range changes across an elevation gradient in response to warming summer temperatures." The paper is published this week in the online Early View of the journal Global Change Biology . ...

February 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

... transport mechanism comes into play during times of extreme global warmth. Lateral trends in carbon isotope ratios reveal a Miocene vegetation gradient in the Siwaliks of Pakistan Michele E. Morgan et al., Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. Pages 103-106. It ...

Organic soils continue to acidify despite reduction in acidic deposition

... "It is possible that the acidification of soils in this subregion was delayed relative to the other subregions because of the strong regional gradient in acidic inputs from west to east." The researchers believe that the observed trend in soil acidification is likely to continue until acidic ...

Stronger coastal winds due to climate change may have far-reaching effects

... in climate. "What we think is going on is that land temperatures are increasing at a faster rate than the ocean temperatures, and this thermal gradient between the land and the ocean is driving increased winds," Snyder said. The researchers conducted multiple runs of their regional model to ...

UAF researchers to present at AGU press briefing

... Russia's Yamal Peninsula. Each crosses five different vegetative and climatic regions, called bioclimate subzones. "If you have a natural climate gradient and you study it from cold to warm you have a good idea of what will happen when climate changes," Walker said. "We're using the transects as an ...

The physics of star-forming clouds and the urban environment

... known as Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurs when a dense fluid rests on top of a light fluid in a gravitational field. It also occurs when a pressure gradient accelerates an interface between fluids of different density, such as in inertial confinement fusion implosions. In San Antonio, David Youngs ...

Northwest climate change is target of $3.2M in grants to University of Oregon

... near Olympia, Wash., the Rogue River Valley outside Medford, Ore., and the Willamette Valley west of Eugene. The three sites form a natural climate gradient of temperature and precipitation, upon which climate-change treatments will be imposed. Bart Johnson, professor of landscape architecture, will ...

Prosthetic vein valve designed to direct blood flow shows promising pre-clinical results

... that the valve met the mechanical design criteria it could withstand pressures of more than 500 millimeters of mercury and opened with a pressure gradient of 2.6 millimeters of mercury, which matched physiologic vein valve function. Detailed laboratory testing procedures and results were described in ...

Engineers create bone that blends into tendons

... the scaffold and decreased that amount until they ended up with no transcription factor on the other end, resulting in a precisely controlled spatial gradient of Runx2. After that, they seeded skin fibroblasts uniformly onto the scaffold. The skin cells on the parts of the scaffold containing a high ...

September Geology and GSA Today media highlights

... late Cenomanian OAE (about 94-93.5 million years ago). Parente et al. show how the pattern of extinction parallels the ecological succession along a gradient of increasing nutrient input predicted by model studies and observed in field studies of nutrient-polluted habitats of larger foraminifers. ...

Microbes, by latitudes and altitudes, shed new light on life's diversity

... that the kinetics of metabolism related to temperature is still linked with photosynthesis. "What we found," Green said, "was that the diversity gradient more correlated with temperature than primary productivity." As for the mountains, traditional wisdom, beginning with Linnaeus, has said that ...

Soil's carbon storage capacity investigated

... postulates that there is an upper limit to the equilibrium soil C level of mineral soils even when soil C input is increased. In this experiment, a gradient of soil C input was produced with four N fertilizer application rates under two tillage systems, no-till and moldboard plowing. To investigate if ...

Everything's coming up corals

... Silverstein collected coral samples from the remote coast of Western Australia to study how corals change their algal symbionts over a latitudinal gradient from the tropics to the temperate regions. Understanding how these algae change within corals is critical to understanding how coral reefs might ...

Ozone hole recovery may reshape southern hemisphere climate change

... air temperatures roughly 6 to 12 miles above Earth's surface to rise by as much as 16 degrees Fahrenheit, reducing the strong north-south temperature gradient that currently favors the positive phase of SAM, said the research team. The supercomputer modeling effort also indicated that ozone hole ...

Marine bacteria's mealtime dash is a swimming success

... bacteria used their rapid motility to very effectively swim toward and follow their food sources. That directed movement in response to a chemical gradient (in this case, nutrients) is known as chemotaxis. It will be important to see how widespread the use of rapid chemotaxis is in the ocean, said ...

Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

... variability of this ocean-atmosphere mode is controlled by the layering of water of different temperatures in the Pacific Ocean and the temperature gradient across the equator. During the globally three degrees Celsius warmer early Pliocene ENSO may have been suppressed in favor of persistent El Nio or La ...

River plants may play major role in health of ocean coastal waters

... flow in a river. Vegetation generates resistance to flow, so the velocity within a canopy is much less than the velocity above it. This spatial gradient of velocity, or shear, produces a coherent swirl of water motion, called a vortex. Using scaled physical models, Nepf and Ghisalberti described the ...

Pourquié lab links beta-catenin gradient to process of somite formation

... as the principal mediator of the Wnt-signaling pathway, in the process of somite formation. They showed that a newly identified Beta-catenin protein gradient in the PSM is critical in regulating mesoderm maturation. Real-time imaging experiments also demonstrated that, conversely, the segmentation clock is ...

Salk scientists identify key nerve navigation pathway

... present. Without the correct orientation of receptors, however, signals cannot be read accurately, resulting in growth going off course. A precise gradient normally exists across the cone, said Pfaff, which is disrupted in the Magellan mutants. As a result, cells lose their polarity. They literally do ...

November GEOLOGY and GSA TODAY Media Highlights

... because of the sensitivity of the mound-building corals to food supply, temperature, and sediment. Favorable conditions occur in the density gradient above the high-saline intermediate water from the Mediterranean. Mound establishment coincides with the start of modern northeast Atlantic ...

Scientists uncover how hormones achieve their effects

... organ and then gradually gets less towards the centre of the cell, says Celine Maeder, who carried out the research in Knops lab. This sets up a gradient of Fus3 activity, which might allow the signal to have different effects in different parts of the cell. This result is exciting, concludes former ...

Nitrogen -- the silent species eliminator

... upland pastures with relatively infertile soils. She found that in places where more nitrogen is deposited, there are fewer plant species. The gradient was so pronounced that one species has been lost for each additional 2.5 kg of nitrogen per hectare deposited every year. Nitrogen from man-made ...

Even when faint, ovary scent draws sperm cells

... "We combined in a microfluidic device the ability to generate a chemical gradient with transporting sperm cells to evaluate sperm chemotaxis," Jacobson ... appears to be an ideal approach for precisely controlling the chemical gradient and accurately tracking chemotactic events. This combination led to ...

Chemical signaling helps regulate sensory map formation in the brain

... January 5, 2006, issue of the journal Nature, the researchers show that a gradient of a molecule known as Wnt3 counterbalances another force provided by the ... paper, Zou and colleagues reveal a new role for Wnts. They show that a gradient of Wnt3 along the medial-lateral axis within the developing brain is the ...

Some like it hot: Worms at deep-sea vents favor a fiery 45-55°C

... seawater is barely above freezing, a steep and variable temperature gradient exists around the thermal vents, making it difficult to measure precisely ... and 61 degrees Celsius (58 and 142 degrees Fahrenheit). When this thermal gradient was established, all the worms migrated to parts of the tank registering ...

Gradient guides nerve growth down spinal cord

... the source. In 2003, University of Chicago researchers reported that a gradient of biochemical signals known as the Wnt proteins acted as a guide for ... to ten days. From previous studies, Zou and colleagues knew that a gradient of various Wnt proteins, including Wnt4, formed along the spinal cord ...

New understanding of cell movement may yield ways to brake cancer's spread

... at the hind end of the cell, enzymes degrade the PIP3 lipid, creating a gradient from one end of the cell to the other. It is this PIP3 lipid gradient that sets the cell into motion toward the right direction. The ...

Salty oceans provide early warning for climate change

... Instead the scientists think that energy is transferred through the ocean along a deep pressure wave. “The surge of salt generates a pressure gradient in the ocean that sends energy to the north without water actually being transported,” explains Zahn. Regardless of whether ocean circulation ...

Cholera pathogen reveals how bacteria generate energy to live

... This enzyme, known as NQR, pumps sodium ions out of the bacteria to generate a difference in concentrations between outside and inside. This gradient acts like a battery that powers essential cell functions, such as the movement of the bacterium’s tail, the flagellum. Most cells, including ...

Embryos exposed in 3-D

... reduce processing time; it can be performed in less than 15 minutes compared to an average processing time of about 2.5 to 4 hours with the Ficoll gradient technique. The Filter Harvest System also exhibited higher yield of MNCs for significantly better recovery (60 to 95 percent) than the Ficoll ....

New technology enables faster, more efficient cell harvest: Cell therapy meeting study

... reduce processing time; it can be performed in less than 15 minutes compared to an average processing time of about 2.5 to 4 hours with the Ficoll gradient technique. The Filter Harvest System also exhibited higher yield of MNCs for significantly better recovery (60 to 95 percent) than the Ficoll ....
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