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Fibrous in Biological News

Researchers identify a molecule that increases the risk of cardiac insufficiency

... of cardiac insufficiency. This enzyme is involved in the accumulation of fibrous tissues in the hearts of patients with chronic cardiac diseases and ... the expression of Llysyl oxidase, an enzyme which regulates the amount of fibrous tissue in cardiac muscle. "By means of molecular and histological methods, ...

Scientists study how asbestos fibers trigger cancer in human cells

... comprises six different minerals that naturally occur in both fragment and fibrous forms. Because of its high durability and heat resistance, the fibrous form has been used in many manufacturing products since the late 1800s. ...

New UGA biomass technology dramatically increases ethanol yield from grasses and yard waste

... non-food crops that can be grown on marginal lands, like grasses, and fibrous waste streams like corn stover, is important because of the ongoing ... rises." Developing an efficient, cost-effective process to convert the fibrous stalks, leaves, and blades of plant wastes into simple sugars is the ...

New mechanical insights into wound healing and scar tissue formation

... heal a wound quickly, if left unchecked, it can also lead to a buildup of fibrous tissue. Following trauma to vital organs such as the heart, lung, liver and kidney, overzealous fibroblasts can continue to build fibrous strands, leading to scar tissue buildup that can impair the organ's ...

deCODE discovers cause of major subtype of glaucoma

... SNP chip. One SNP was strongly linked to exfoliation syndrome, in which fibrous deposits begin to accumulate in the front of the eye but have not yet ... loss of vision. Exfoliation glaucoma is caused by the buildup of fibrous deposits on the surfaces on the front of the eye. Between 10-20% of people ...

MS study offers theory for why repair of brain's wiring fails

... oligodendrocytes, which function as repair workers in the brain. Oligodendrocytes form a protective sheath, known as myelin, that insulates the fibrous cables, or axons, radiating from nerve cells. In multiple sclerosis, the immune system's T cells and B cells attack oligodendrocytes, ultimately ...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... Palo Alto, CACellulose is a fibrous molecule that makes up plant cell walls, gives plants shape and form and is a target of renewable, plant-based biofuels research. But how it forms, ...

Liver disease 'shrunk' by blood-pressure drug

... alcohol, hereditary and autoimmune diseases. Mechanism Liver damage, known as fibrosis, is caused by the unwanted accumulation of excess fibrous connective tissue which is produced and maintained by a specialised cell, the liver myofibroblast. In chronic liver disease a signalling pathway ...

Breaking the ties that bind: New hope for biomass fuels

... , Los Alamos researchers identify potential weaknesses among sheets of cellulose molecules comprising lignocellulosic biomass, the inedible fibrous material derived from plant cell walls. The material is a potentially abundant source of sugar that can be used to brew batches of methanol or ...

Genetic abnormality may increase risk of blood disorders

... which affect an estimated 140,000 people in the US carry the JAK2 mutation and suffer from the overproduction of red blood cells, platelets, or fibrous connective tissue. According to the authors, understanding the underlying inherited sequence partly explains the predisposition for acquiring ...

Scientists deconstruct cell division

... phase, which leads to the duplication of one mother cell into two daughter cells. In mitosis, the chromosomes condense and the nucleus breaks down. fibrous structures called spindles form, which then move the chromosomal material toward opposite ends of a cell and help partition other cell contents. If ...

Rot's unique wood degrading machinery to be harnessed for better biofuels production

... of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ). Among the challenges to more cost-effective production of biofuels from cellulosic biomassthe fibrous material of whole plantsis to find effective means to work around the polymer lignin, the scaffolding that endows the plant's architecture with ...

Reducing the damage of a heart attack

... accelerating the processing of pro-collagen, a precursor of mature collagen, the main component deposited in scar tissue. Following a heart attack, fibrous collagen deposits are increased, replacing the dead muscle and leading to more scar tissue, which prevents recovery. "Therapeutically, the ...

How neuronal activity leads to Alzheimer's protein cleavage

... Amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose cleavage product, amyloid-b (Ab), builds up into fibrous plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, jumps from one specialized membrane microdomain to another to be cleaved, report Sakurai et ....

FSU researcher's discovery leads to $1.5 million grant, potential new treatment of liver fibrosis

... death in the United States. Liver fibrosis refers to the accumulation of excess scar tissue in the liver through excess deposits of collagen, a fibrous protein found in skin, bone, and other connective tissues. The formation of scar tissue is a normal bodily response to injury, but in fibrosis the ...

Duke team finds compounds that prevent nerve damage

... for developing even more effective drugs, Lai said. The scientists plan to test whether the TGM2 inhibitors they identified would prevent the fibrous tissue process that causes chronic renal, vascular and lung disease. ...

Sesame seed extract and konjac gum may help ward off Salmonella and E. coli

... Centre, the Netherlands, shows that these foodstuffs act as binders for E. coli and Salmonella bacteria. The bacteria attach themselves to the fibrous foods instead of the gut cells of the host. Dr Becker says that eating a diet full of these foodstuffs may offer protection from gastro-intestinal ...

Can tomatoes carry the cure for Alzheimer's?

... of dementia and it progresses over a long period of time. It is thought to be caused by the accumulation of human beta-amyloid, a toxic insoluble fibrous protein in the brain, which leads to the death of neurons. Reducing the accumulation of beta-amyloid may inhibit the degeneration of the nervous ...

High blood pressure in older adults traced to gene's effects in blood vessels

... and its relationship to profilin 1. In the presence of too much profilin1, actin is transformed from a loosely configured protein into a more rigid fibrous state. This change in actin's nature increases the size and the stiffness of smooth muscle cells. The cells undergo other changes that prepare ...

Rutgers scientist's research reveals critical knowledge about the nervous system

... within the peripheral nervous system and their communication links with the axons they myelinate by enwrapping them in myelin. Axons are the long fibrous part of neurons that carry the nerves electrical signals. A fatty substance, myelin covers those axons both to protect them and to provide a conduit ...

High blood pressure, low energy -- a recipe for heart failure

... overload, the researchers observed signs of early heart failure: the mouse hearts dilated and didn't contract effectively, the heart walls thinned, fibrous connective tissue accumulated and some heart cells died. They also saw that the hearts had depleted fuel reserves. Kelly indicates that these ...

Cellular message movement captured on video

... In a surprise, Chien and Hu also showed that paxillin itself forms long, fibrous structures in the cell cytoplasm.When actin is chemically removed, paxillin no longer moves and its fibrous structures disappear. “As least by showing that paxillin and actin ...

Manchester scientists create new bio-gel for 3D cell culture

... sized fibres when exposed to physiological conditions, to create a fibrous gel-like structure in which cells can be cultured. Because thismaterial is ... oligo-peptides used by other researchers, we have greater control over the fibrous architecture and the physical properties of the gels. These materials ...

Wisconsin scientists find a way to make human collagen in the lab

... body, reinforcing connective tissue, bones and teeth, and forming long, fibrous cables to strengthen tendons. Collagen forms sheets of tissue that support ... no way to link the easily made short snippets of collagen into the long, fibrous molecules necessary to mimic the real thing. But now a team of ...

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

... leaving narrow strips of remaining rodlet structure. In the end, 1- to 3- nm-wide fibrils remained. The in vitro AFM imaging also revealed the porous fibrous cell wall structure of newly emerging and mature vegetative cells, consisting of a network of nanometer-wide peptidoglycan fibers. “These results ...

Study examines risk of soft tissue sarcomas in hereditary retinoblastoma survivors

... of smooth muscle cells that was diagnosed in 23 of the patients. Other frequently diagnosed sarcomas were fibrosarcoma (13 patients), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (12), rhabdomyosarcoma (8), and liposarcoma (3). The authors calculated that there was a 184-fold increase in soft-tissue sarcomas among ...

ConocoPhillips establishes $22.5M biofuels research program at Iowa State

... Conventional biorenewable fuels include ethanol from corn starch and biodiesel from soybean oil. Advanced biofuels are expected to be made from fibrous biomass such as the stalks and leaves from corn plants and switchgrass. "I'm pleased Iowa State University and ConocoPhillips will partner to ...

Cartilage discovery offers arthritis hope

... of the team's work will be to determine the structure of the thicker fibrils and examine how collagen cells manage to produce these relatively large fibrous structures which are 1,000 times their own size. Once scientists understand how the fibrils form and develop in healthy cartilage, they can then ...

Inhibiting blood to save the brain

... A fibrous protein called fibrinogen, found in circulating blood and important in blood clotting, can promote multiple sclerosis (MS) when it leaks from the ...

Meeting the ethanol challenge: Scientists use supercomputer to target cellulose bottleneck

... A far better source is to produce ethanol from cellulose, easing pressure on foo d supplies and yielding greater greenhouse gas benefits. The fibrous part that makes up the bulk of plants, cellulose is the cheapest and most abundant plant material, from corn stalks left after harvest to wood chips ...

German researchers develop first non-invasive test to measure skin aging

... measuring the collagen/elastin factor. The team was also able to obtain images of tiny swaths -- one-fifth of a millimeter wide -- of the proteins' fibrous matrices, showing the physical appearance of the dermis, the white lower-layer of skin that gets exposed in deep abrasions. Large variations ...

Bones at the nanoscale

... level. The re-sults are published this week in the PNAS online edition. A bone is made up of two different elements: half of it is a stretchable fibrous protein called collagen and the other half a brittle mineral phase called apatite. These com-ponents make this biomineralized tissue highly strong ...

Scientists show drug can counteract muscular dystrophy in mice

... to develop a form of dystrophy similar to the human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. At 45 to 90 days of age, the muscles of the MD mice showed much fibrous tissue and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Unlike healthy mice, the mice with MD were unable to either run on a treadmill or swim. MD mice given ...

MIT engineers probe spiders' polymer art

... Silk protein solution consists of 30-40 percent polymers; the rest is water. The spider's silk-producing glands are capable of synthesizing large fibrous proteins and processing those proteins into an insoluble fiber. "The amazing thing nature has found is how to spin a material out of an aqueous ...

Relationship of brain and skull more than just packaging

... scientist, looked at the CT scans and MRIs of infants with particular types of craniosynostosis ?a condition where one or more of the sutures -- fibrous bands that connect the bones -- of the baby's skull close too early and deform the skull and brain. "We are interested in understanding ...

Exposure to volcanic mineral associated with increased mesothelioma incidence in Turkey

... High exposure to a fibrous volcanic mineral called erionite was associated with a high incidence of a type of cancer called mesothelioma, according to a study in the March 15 ...

Formation of cellulose fibers tracked for the first time

... Cellulose--a fibrous molecule found in all plants--is the most abundant biological material on Earth. It is also a favored target of renewable, plant-based biofuels ...

Virginia Tech scientists develop process for creating biocompatible fibers

... Scientists at Virginia Tech have developed a single-step process for creating nonwoven fibrous mats from a small organic molecule ?creating a new nanoscale material with potential applications where biocompatible materials are required, such as ...

Researchers learn how blood vessel cells cope with their pressure-packed job

... lining the aorta of a cow, but the endothelial cells of the human aorta are expected to react similarly. The stress fibers were made of actin, a fibrous protein that is part of the machinery that gives muscle its ability to contract. Actin also gives virtually all cells their ability to make an ...
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