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Eukaryotes in Biological News

New study reveals the protein that makes phosphate chains in yeast

... Germany, are now the first to uncover how this chain is assembled in eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have a nucleus). The study, published this week in ... time how bacteria make phosphate chains, but how the same process works in eukaryotes has so far remained elusive. EMBL scientists now show that in yeast a ...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

... method on 518 genomes, the bulk of them bacteria and Archaea, but also six eukaryotes of varying complexity and two random sequences. The eurkaryotic genomes ... FFP method clearly segregates whole proteomes of all bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes and random sequences into separate groups or domains. Most of the phylum ...

New edition of laboratory manual includes cutting-edge techniques to study gene regulation

... to the new edition. The first edition of Transcriptional Regulation in eukaryotes was published in 2000, shortly before the draft sequences of the human ... a major emphasis of the new edition. Transcriptional Regulation in eukaryotes is geared towards graduate students, postdocs, physician-scientists, and ...

Proteins strangle cell during division

... they are more closely related to another main group of living things, the eukaryotes (humans, animals, plants, fungi, etc). Strangler proteins Until now ... proteins in the new type of cell division are similar to proteins in other eukaryotes that have a completely different function. The study shows that the ...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

... prevents transcription in the first place." According to Pikaard, most eukaryotes use the same two-pronged method for silencing genes at the transcriptional ... of proteins called histones that act as spools for DNA. All eukaryotes share three essential RNA polymerases: Pol I, II, and III. These ...

Census of protein architectures offers new view of history of life

... eventually evolved into what we now call bacteria and the multicellular eukaryotes also began to lose folds, but they started downsizing their repertoires ... We have the largest repertoire that there is, Caetano-Anolls said. The eukaryotes evolution into large, multicellular bodies that could live in diverse ...

Research-based undergraduate course expands beyond Washington University

... component of the course is annotation, the construction of "gene models" that distinguish coding regions of the DNA from noncoding regions. In eukaryotes such as humans and fruit flies, only a small percentage of the genome contains instructions for making proteins. Elgin explains, "It's as though ...

Diatom genome helps explain success in trapping excess carbon in oceans

... power and ability to cope with environmental change. "We believe this is the first time bacterial horizontal gene transfer has been observed in eukaryotes at such scale," says senior author Igor Grigoriev of DOE JGI. "This study gets us closer to explaining the dramatic diversity across the genera of ...

The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA

... DNA by means of "recognition loops" in the protein's folded string of amino acid residues. P. furiosus Mre11 has six recognition loops. Mre11 from eukaryotes organisms including yeast, frogs, and humans, whose cells, unlike archaea and bacteria, have membrane-packaged nuclei exhibit only five of these ...

Exploding chromosomes fuel research about evolution of genetic storage

... extended his research to the fruit fly. Like mammals, fruit flies belong to the pantheon of eukaryotes. In contrast to prokaryotes like bacteria, eukaryotes pack their genetic material in a cellular nucleus. Prokaryotes lack a nucleus. "Cations play a very important role in the folding and charge ...

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute announces new genome sequencing projects

... This project was proposed by Dan Cullen from the University of WisconsinMadison. The CSP selections draw from all three branches of life: eukaryotes (such as plants and fungi), bacteria, and archaea. Desulfurococcus fermentans, isolated from the Uzon Caldera on the Kamchatka Peninsula, is the ...

Charting the epigenome

... Ecker, Ph.D., a professor in the Plant Biology laboratory and director of the Salk Institute Genomic Analysis Laboratory. The genomes of higher eukaryotes are peppered with modifications but unless you can take a detailed look at a large scale there is no way of knowing whether a particular mark is ...

Bloodless worm sheds light on human blood, iron deficiency

... is a critical molecule for health in all eukaryotes, organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures enclosed in membranes. Species of eukaryotes range from humans to bakers yeast. Heme makes blood red and binds to oxygen and other gases we need to survive. Heme is created in the ...

Pathogens use previously undescribed mechanism to sabotage host immune system

... is widely used as a regulatory mechanism in mammalian cells, the researchers speculated that phosphoserine or phosphothreonine lyases might exist in eukaryotes and serve as post-translational modification enzymes that irreversible dephosphorylate kinases or other phosphorylated substrates. ...

Symposium marks 30th anniversary of discovery of third domain of life

... and quickly turned their attention to other methanogens. The genetic pattern held: The rRNA signatures of the methanogens were distinct from those of eukaryotes and bacteria. Woese concluded that the methanogens were not bacteria. Wolfe recalled, When Carl said they werent bacteria, I said: Of course they ...

All eukaryotic kinases share 1 common set of substrates

... results suggest the presence of a set of kinase substrates in an ancestral eukaryote that has remained unchanged in eukaryotic life, so the earliest eukaryotes may have been less primitive than generally thought. Since drugs targeting protein kinases are promising for the therapeutic treatment of a host ...

Ancient organisms discovered in Canadian gold mine

... five years carefully analyzing the shale samples, originally to compare what they found with an earlier Australian study suggesting the presence of eukaryotes some 2.7 billion years ago. Ventura, now a post-doctoral researcher at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, said initial laboratory results ...

DNA replication behavior in complex organisms may foreshadow leaps in genomic discoveries

... author of the publication, Dr Liu Jianhua, said, Our evidence strongly supports the stochastic model for the regulation of DNA replication in high eukaryotes (organisms whose cells are organised into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton) such as humans. We have shown that replication ...

Molecular DNA switch found to be the same for all life

... DNA is not contained within a defined nucleus. eukaryotes consist of plants and animals and all other ... initiated at a single sites, DNA replication in eukaryotes can be an immensely complicated multi-event ... the mechanism for initiating DNA replication in eukaryotes was presumed to be much different than the ...

Puzzling plankton yield secrets to role in evolution/global photosynthesis

... primitive root of the green plant lineage, dating back nearly 1.5 billion years. Today, these microscopic, free-living creatures, among the smallest eukaryotes ever characterized, barely a micron in diameter, contribute to a significant share of the world’s total photosynthetic activity. These ...

DNA ends: Common tool, different job

... Every time a cell repairs or replicates its DNA, the resulting single strand is wrapped up by a dedicated protein complex. In eukaryotes or organisms whose cells have a nucleus, this job is handled by a tripartite complex called replication protein A (RPA). Researchers at the Salk ...

Microbe fixes nitrogen at a blistering 92 C

... nitrogen gas, that's unusable by life, to a form like ammonia that is useable ?arose before the three main branches of life ?bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes ?diverged some 3.5 billion years ago, according to oceanographer Mausmi Mehta, who recently received her doctorate from the UW, and John Baross, UW ...

Scientists uncover rules for gene amplification

... said Kirill Lobachev, assistant professor in Georgia Tech's School of Biology. "If these rules operating in yeast can be extended to higher eukaryotes then we can propose that if the oncogene is located between the hairpin-capped break and the telomere, then the amplification event will result in a ...

Advanced genomics and proteomics improve the diagnosis and treatment of a deadly lung disease

... very interesting," said Doudna. "What is this enzyme used for in Giardia? We don't know. The Giardia Dicer is smaller than the Dicer found in other eukaryotes and we don't know why that is. What do the bells and whistles on the human enzyme do?" Knowing Dicer's structure, scientists can now begin to ...

Molecule does more than slice and dice RNA

... very interesting," said Doudna. "What is this enzyme used for in Giardia? We don't know. The Giardia Dicer is smaller than the Dicer found in other eukaryotes and we don't know why that is. What do the bells and whistles on the human enzyme do?" Knowing Dicer's structure, scientists can now begin to ...

Bacteria which sense the Earth's magnetic field

... further evidence of the diverse functions that cytoskeletal structures in bacteria seem to have, and which, for a long time, have only been known in eukaryotes -- i.e., organisms whose cells have nuclei. The fact that the chain structure of bacterial nanomagnets is exactly regulated by genetics could also ...

North & South American researchers find architectural abnormalities in T. cruzi ribosome

... for this chronic phase of the infection. In addition to the public health implications, Frank sees the parasite as a primitive link to modern eukaryotes and its ribosome as a source of potential insights into the evolution of more complex organisms. "Ribosomes perform the translation of genetic ...

Field tested: Grasslands won't help buffer climate change as carbon dioxide levels rise

... "Students who take a biology class learn in the first three days that cells of prokaryotes are uniform and without organization, while cells of eukaryotes have a complex organization," Yeates said. "That contrast is becoming less stark; we are learning there is more of a continuum than a sharp divide. ...

Nighttime Dying Linked To Sleep Apnea From Brain Cell Loss

... "Students who take a biology class learn in the first three days that cells of prokaryotes are uniform and without organization, while cells of eukaryotes have a complex organization," Yeates said. "That contrast is becoming less stark; we are learning there is more of a continuum than a sharp divide. ...

New discovery blurs distinction between human cells and those of bacteria

... "Students who take a biology class learn in the first three days that cells of prokaryotes are uniform and without organization, while cells of eukaryotes have a complex organization," Yeates said. "That contrast is becoming less stark; we are learning there is more of a continuum than a sharp divide. ...

Scientists find microRNAs regulate plant development

... ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), a major component of the RNA-induced silencing complex in Arabidopsis. There are many AGO1-like proteins in animals and other eukaryotes as well, indicating that the RNA-induced silencing complex is of ancient evolutionary origin, and that microRNA-mediated regulation of gene ...

Biologists determine genetic blueprint of social amoeba

... Loomis' laboratory, to generate a tree of life and show that amoebozoa, the group to which Dictyostelium belongs, evolved from the common ancestor of eukaryotes (the group of organisms that contain all animals, plants, algae, protozoa, slime mold and fungi) before fungi. Dictyostelium has about 12,000 genes ...

Map of life on Earth could be used on Mars

... her research at the 2004 annual meeting of the Geological Society of America. Microorganisms can be divided into haves and have-nots: cells of eukaryotes contain a nucleus, while prokaryotic organisms cells do not. Prokaryotic organisms encompass archeal and bacterial domains of life. Archeal organisms ...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

... gene expression, and retroviruses like HIV have evolved myriad ways of redirecting that machinery to their own benefit. Humans and other eukaryotes have three types of RNA polymerases, each charged with transcribing different types of genetic elements. RNA polymerase II transcribes protein-coding ...
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