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Dorsal in Biological News

UNH researchers studying spiny dogfish, Gulf of Maine's mini shark

... were recorded, blood samples were taken and dorsal fin spines, vertebrae and reproductive organs ... by the annuli on otoliths (inner ear bones), dorsal or pectoral fin spines. The second dorsal fin spine was previously used to identify the ...

Cognitive, genetic clues identified in imaging study of alcohol addiction

... making -- the posterior parietal cortex, the dorsal prefrontal cortex, the anterior temporal lobe and ... they choose for the short-term gain." The dorsal prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex often ... worth the wait. The parietal cortex and the dorsal prefrontal cortex were much more active in people ...

480-million-year-old fossil sheds light on 150-year-old paleontological mystery

... animals disintegrated quickly after death, so complete fossils of their dorsal armor are rare, and their record until now consisted mostly of isolated ... This inch-long specimen that was recently discovered shows that, below the dorsal armor, the machaeridians had an elongate body with paired, soft, limb-like ...

Venomous sea snakes play heads or tails with their predators

... making them highly vulnerable to attack. However, the Yellow-lipped Sea Krait has been found to twist its tail so that the tip corresponds with the dorsal view of the head, which combined with deceptive colouring, gives the illusion of having two heads and two loads of deadly venom. Apart from the ...

Investigating the development of mechanosensitivity

... pathways. ( EMBO Journal , 2009, doi:10.1038/emboj.2009.73).* The sensory neurons, which are sensitive to touch and pain, are located in the dorsal root ganglia between the intervertebral discs. The neurons receive the stimulus and convert it into electrical signals that are conveyed to the ....

Predators ignore peculiar prey

... Benjamin Fitzpatrick, from the University of Tennessee, worked with Kim Shook and Reuben Izally to study the effects of the prevalence of a dorsal stripe among a group of model salamanders on the foraging behavior of a flock of Blue Jays. He said, "Maintenance of variation is a classic paradox ...

Brain's problem-solving function at work when we daydream

... the study finds that the brain's "executive network" associated with high-level, complex problem-solving and including the lateral PFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex also becomes activated when we daydream. "This is a surprising finding, that these two brain networks are activated in ...

NOAA researchers: Blue whales re-establishing former migration patterns

... thousand photographs of blue whales off the West Coast. A positive match was determined based on pigmentation patterns in skin color and shape of the dorsal fin. Blue whales were severely depleted during commercial whaling activities during the early 1900's in the north Pacific and along the West ...

Limping rat provides sciatica insights

... us find answers for a disorder that has few good treatments." For their experiments, the researchers compressed a specific nerve root known as the dorsal root ganglia in the lumbar region of the spine, which simulated sciatica in one of the rear legs. They performed numerous tests on the animals' ...

Potential new herpes therapy studied

... percent in mice not given the special enzyme. Analysis of tissue from treated mice revealed lower viral DNA levels in the feet, nerve cells called dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord than in mice not treated with the ribozyme. The approach has also been tested in mouse tissue and in rabbits. ...

Fitness in a changing world

... its entire life isolated in freshwater habitats. Oceanic stickleback are protected by a complete set of bony lateral plates along the sides and dorsal and pelvic spines on the top and bottom of the fish. These structures help the fish survive attacks by birds and other fish-eating predators. The ...

Rare albino ratfish has eerie, silvery sheen

... water, Reum says, but they get snappish when brought on board. And then there's that venomous spine. Located on their back, just in front of the dorsal fin, ratfish have a spine several inches long that is serrated on one edge, needle sharp at the tip and delivers an irritating venom. The spine could ...

Adaptation to parasites drive African fishes along different evolutionary paths

... fainzilberi ) are found in the north western part of Lake Malawi. Until now, the only known difference between them was the color of their dorsal fin. Many researchers believe that African cichlids recognize conspecifics from these kinds of colour differences, which are thought to result from ...

Striking the right balance between excitation and inhibition

... neurons. Many interneurons emerging in the dorsal part of the spinal cord arise from a common ... kinds of neurons." The neurons in the dorsal spinal cord analyzed by the Goulding lab form a ... happens is because inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord dampen down their excitatory ...

How 'hot' emotional brain interferes with 'cool' processing

... the ventral system, but also deactivated the dorsal regions. In the new study, the researchers ... of the ventral system and deactivation of the dorsal system than did the neutral or scrambled images, ... behavioral connection between deactivation of the dorsal system and impaired performance. "The ...

Female butterflies go for sparkle -- not size -- when choosing to mate

... series of carefully controlled tests on both the dorsal and ventral sides of wings, Robertson induced a ... the researchers painted the white pupil on the dorsal side with black paint, thereby eliminating the ... painted the white pupils in male eyespots on the dorsal side with a plant extract, rutin, which ...

New understanding of jet lag

... Biology. The investigators found that the dorsal and ventral sections of the suprachiasmatic ... even a radically shifted schedule. But the dorsal part of the clock requires several additional ... as using a drug to enhance GABA, the ventral and dorsal parts of the central timekeeper could more ...

After a time-shift, mixed signals from the circadian clock

... one part of the clock mechanism, represented by a dorsal (upper) group of cells, exhibited oscillations in ... the researchers found to excite the cells of the dorsal SCN while inhibiting neurons in the ventral SCN. ... transmits information between the ventral and dorsal SCN, such differences in effect might influence, ...

New species declared: Clouded leopard on Borneo and Sumatra

... many distinct spots within the cloud markings, grayer fur, and a double dorsal stripe. Clouded leopards from the mainland have large clouds on their skin ... in color, with a tendency toward tawny-colored fur and a partial double dorsal stripe. “Who said a leopard can never change its spots? For over a ...

Scientists use gene transfer technology and common virus to block neuropathic pain

... use it as a carrier to deliver GAD to the nucleus of nerve cells in the dorsal root ganglion near the spine. In previous studies, the researchers have confirmed that the vector remains in the dorsal root ganglion, but an enzyme expressed by the GAD gene moves to nerve ...

Scientists use gene transfer technology and common virus to block neuropathic pain in animals

... use it as a carrier to deliver GAD to the nucleus of nerve cells in the dorsal root ganglion near the spine. In previous studies, the researchers have confirmed that the vector remains in the dorsal root ganglion, but an enzyme expressed by the GAD gene moves to nerve ...

How the brain's backup system compensates for stroke

... 3, 2007 issue of the journal Neuron, published by Cell Press. In their experiments, the researchers focused on a region of the brain called the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), which is known to govern the selection of an action. The PMd is mirrored in the two brain hemispheres, and the left-hemisphere ...

When your brain talks, your muscles don't always listen

... created in UD's Human Performance Lab, Knight has been examining muscular force on a very small scale in the index finger, specifically, the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Located between the index finger and the thumb, this muscle contains 120 "motor units"--in other words, 120 individual neurons, ...

A new target for painkillers

... nicotine from cigarette smoking. Alpha9alpha10 nicotinic receptors are found in a variety of body tissues, including white blood cells and the dorsal root ganglia ?a group of nerve cells near the spine and involved in pain transmission. The new study showed alpha9alpha10 nicotinic receptors ...

High dopamine transporter levels not correlated with ADHD

... than control subjects in the nucleus accumbens, an area of the ventral striatum that is one of the main reward centers in the brain. In a dorsal striatum region known as the putamen, which plays an important role in habits and is also involved with attention, dopamine transporter levels did ...

Master planners in brain may coordinate other areas' roles in cognitive tasks

... task to working on a task, these areas seem to become active." The study, published in the June 1 issue of Neuron, highlighted three regions, the dorsal anterior cingulate and the left and right frontal operculum. The cingulate is found near the midline of the top of the brain; the opercula are at the ...

Ecologists home in on how sperm whales find their prey

... and the Ligurian Sea, scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the University of St Andrews attached acoustic recording tags to the dorsal surface of sperm whales with suction cups. The whales were then tracked acoustically with a towed hydrophone array. The researchers used the tags ...

UF scientists discover evolutionary origin of fins, limbs

... eventually limb - locomotion, Cohn said. The earliest fishes lacked paired fins, similar to the modern-day lamprey - a species of jawless fish with a dorsal fin and tail but no side fins - considered by biologists to share many features with the ancestor of all vertebrates. "The emergence of paired ...

Tracking the memory trace

... based on his most recent report on the topic that finds a memory trace in Drosophila or fruit flies is formed in a pair of neurons called the dorsal pair medial neurons, but only 30 minutes after the fact and only through the mediation of a gene called, ironically, amnesiac. (A memory trace is a ...

Scientists crack code for motor neuron wiring

... motor neurons project into the limb; the divisional organization of motor neurons that determines whether motor neurons project to muscles in the dorsal or ventral halves of the limb; and finally, the motor neuron pool identity that governs the muscle target of each set of motor neurons. In a key set ...

Telling axons where to go - and grow

... the biological activity of LIM-HD transcription factors. The authors find high levels of Rnf6 protein in axonal projections of motor neurons and dorsal root ganglia neurons in mouse embryos at a time in which projections are actively developing, suggesting a role of this protein in the development of ...

Noise And Delays Explain Why Some Genes Oscillate In Activity

... for sleep-deprived monkeys, glucose metabolism drops off in brain areas previously associated with memory tasks—namely, the prefrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the medial temporal lobe. However, when sleep-deprived monkeys took the drug, they showed heightened glucose metabolism in these same ...

Clocking in Pillow Time without the Pillow

... for sleep-deprived monkeys, glucose metabolism drops off in brain areas previously associated with memory tasks—namely, the prefrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the medial temporal lobe. However, when sleep-deprived monkeys took the drug, they showed heightened glucose metabolism in these same ...

Cousin of Asian super termite invades Florida

... possible infestations of the pest, Su said residents should look for winged termites flying around lights at dusk and in the evening. The head and dorsal surface of the body are dark brown in contrast to its yellow-brown underside, thereby giving the flying insects a "two-toned" appearance. Termite ...

Stealth Worms May Improve Insect Pest Control

... to jump on it and penetrate it through the insect's natural openings - mouth, anus, spiracles. Or the nematode may enter the host directly by using a dorsal tooth. Once inside the insect, the nematode vomits the pathogen, which kills the host within 24 to 48 hours and even digests its tissues, creating ...

Love's all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive

... that "when our participants looked at a photo of his/her beloved, specific activation occurred in the right ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal caudate body. These regions were significant compared to two control conditions, providing strong evidence that these brain areas, which are ...
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