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Differentiation in Biological News

Stem cell research: From molecular physiology to therapeutic applications

... Deng from Peking University is working on the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into pancreatic ... embryonic and inducible pluripotent stem cell differentiation into functional pancreatic islet cells and ... Sciences. He has been studying the mechanism of differentiation and de-differentiation, cellular plasticity and ...

Xie Lab uncovers molecular machinery related to stem cell fate

... how the BAM protein affects germline stem cell differentiation and how it is involved in regulating the quality ... proper balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is critical for normal homeostasis. An imbalance ... Xie Lab established that BAM controls stem cell differentiation and competition by interfering with the function ...

Scientists identify key gene that protects against leukemia

... a gene that controls the rapid production and differentiation of the stem cells that produce all blood cell ... signals that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells, the multipotent, ... at which HSCs are proliferating and the rate of differentiation toward the myeloid lineage that ultimately ...

Protein is key to embryonic stem cell differentiation

... role in the pathways that control decisions for differentiation or self-renewal in both human embryonic stem ... and controlling the processes that lead to differentiation of hESCs into specialized cell types. "There ... lab created mutant Shp2 mESCs and showed that differentiation was dramatically impaired as the cells ...

New 'control knobs' for stem cells identified

... Potential Controls Adipogenic and Osteogenic differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells" in the November 17, ... increase in negative voltage that occurs during differentiation and suppressed fat and bone cell differentiation markers. In contrast, treatment with ...

Landmark study unlocks stem cell, DNA secrets to speed therapies

... complex process by which DNA is repackaged during differentiation -- when embryonic stem cells, jacks of all ... how replication works during embryonic stem cell differentiation gives us a molecular handle on how information is ... same genetic information in their DNA, but during differentiation they package it with proteins into 'chromatin' in ...

Tumor-inhibiting protein could be effective in treating leukemia

... Novel Angiogenic Inhibitor, Angiocidin, Induces differentiation of Monocytes to Macropahges," will be published ... cells, "our molecule was able to induce a differentiation of these monocytic leukemia cells into a normal, ... cells," he said. "That Angiocidin can stimulate differentiation and stimulate the immune system is basically a ...

Protein protects embryonic stem cells' versatility and self-renewal

... supply of these cells and in preserving their differentiation capability. Suppressing MicroRNA-21 In ... cells ability to reproduce themselves and started differentiation even when the cells were grown under conditions ... neural stem cells stemness, REST prevents their differentiation into normal and distinct types of cells, leading ...

Trainor Lab characterizes gene essential for prenatal development of nervous system

... system, a process that requires coordination of differentiation of immature neural cells with the cycle of cell ... through the cycle of cell division with differentiation of neural cells by direct activation of two key ... cell-cycle progression with neural progenitor differentiation and cell-fate determination provides a much ...

Bodily breakdown explained: How cell differentiation patterns suppress somatic evolution

... by a well-known pattern of ongoing cell differentiation in the mature tissues of animals, according to a ... Biology. The failure of normal cell differentiation patterns may explain cancer and senescent decline ... that a well-known pattern of ongoing cell differentiation in the mature tissues of animals functions to ...

Neural stem cell differentiation factor discovered

... the division of neural stem cells. At the same time, EGFL7 stimulated the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons. It has been well defined that ... especially in the human brain. EGFL7 might also be applied as a neuronal differentiation factor in ischemic insults or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer ...

Embryology study offers clues to birth defects

... hindlimbs, and that retinoic acid is not responsible for patterning (or differentiation of the parts) of limbs. This research corrects longstanding misconceptions ... processes are regulated by signaling molecules that control the growth and differentiation of progenitor cells by regulating specific genes. One of these signaling ...

Gladstone scientists identify key factors in heart cell creation

... first time any combination of factors has been found to activate cardiac differentiation in mammalian cells or tissues. "The heart has very little regenerative ... The effect was dramatic. Addition of the three factors directed differentiation of mouse mesoderm, which normally has the potential to make bone, blood, ...

FANTOM findings boost for biologists

... mRNA 5'-reads (CAGE tags) and microarray expression profiles along a differentiation time course of the human THP-1 cell line and data regarding chromatin ... the first genome-wide analysis of EGR-1 binding sites implicated in cell differentiation in human monoblastoma THP-1 cells. Dr. Harukazu Suzuki, the scientific ...

Plant biologists discover gene that switches on 'essence of male'

... cell division and for the expression of genes that are critical for gamete differentiation and fertilisation. "This work provides the first molecular insight into the mechanisms through which cell cycle progression and gamete differentiation are coordinated in flowering plants. "This knowledge will be helpful ...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features stem cell differentiation, plant RNAi methods

... -- By using OP9-DL1 cells as a support system, researchers can study the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature components of the immune system. This ... hematopoietic stem cells from fetal liver or bone marrow; and the in vitro differentiation of the stem cells into lymphocytes. The OP9-DL1 system has been useful in ...

Reprogrammable cell type depends on a single gene to keep its identity

... a member of the St. Jude Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology. differentiation is the process by which genetic activity causes an immature cell type to ... years, some discoveries have challenged the long-standing belief that cell differentiation is an irreversible final process," said Oliver, the paper's senior author. ...

New molecular insight into vertebrate brain development

... central nervous system, as well as the controlled proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells into various specialized cell types. The ... that functions by restricting instructing the survival, proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells. In addition, the researchers identified the TEA ...

Reversible 3-D cell culture gel invented

... are also able to control the gel's stiffness, thus facilitating the differentiation of stem cells into specific cell types. "Ways to control stem cell differentiation are important as stem cells can be differentiated into various cell types. ...

October 2008 Biology of Reproduction highlights

... CKO testes did express the Cre recombinase; therefore, it is likely that differentiation to this stage can occur in the absence of DICER1. Nonetheless, Dicer1 ... T. McManus, Karen Moore, and Brian D. Harfe. Dicer1 Is Required for differentiation of the Mouse Male Germline. Biol Reprod 2008; 79:696-703. Published ...

Gap junction protein vital to successful pregnancy, researchers find

... to detail the mechanism by which the steroid hormone estrogen spurs cell differentiation and blood-vessel growth in the uterus during pregnancy, the researchers ... by co-author Robert Taylor of Emory University), Cx43 enhanced the differentiation of cells that make up the stromal tissue of the uterus. These cells ...

Cardiac cell transplant studies show promise in cardiac tissue repair

... both MSCs have "similar biological profiles" they did not possess equal differentiation potential. "The differentiation potentials of MSCs observed in vitro need a definitive in vivo ...

Hydrogels provide scaffolding for growth of bone cells

... found that, in vitro, the hydrogels promoted cell proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast cells. Further research by the ... that incorporates a nanogel structure. This new hydrogel promotes the differentiation of cells, much like the hyaluronic acid gel while also releasing nanogels ...

UCLA stem cell researchers create heart and blood cells from reprogrammed skin cells

... to embryonic stem cells, further study needs to be done to confirm their differentiation potential. MacLellans study proved that iPS cells can be induced into ... Cells. For the first time, scientists from UCLA were able to induce the differentiation of mouse iPS cells into functional heart cells. In MacLellans study, ...

St. Jude defines eye cancer gene's role in retinal development

... roles during prenatal development by regulating the proliferation, size, differentiation and survival of cells. Myc genes are also proto-oncogenesgenes in which a ... that N-myc is not involved in regulating cell survival or neuronal differentiation in the developing retina. However, the gene is crucial for the proper ...

Evolution of the sexes: What a fungus can tell us

... fossil. "Fungi are good model systems for the evolution of human sexual differentiation because the genetic sequences responsible for sex are smaller versions of ... called a high mobility group (HMG)-domain protein that leads to sex differentiation through an unknown process. This protein is very similar to one encoded by ...

Researchers discover important tool in understanding differentiation in human embryonic stem cells

... to transiently increase levels of oct4 in hESC. This also resulted in differentiation as expected, but with differentiation patterns similar to those seen with the knockdown. This was an unexpected ...

Cancer's distinctive pattern of gene expression could aid early screening and prevention

... Dr. Robertson, who also works in breast cancer and brain tumors as well as colon cancer, is finding patterns of genes that regulate healthy cell differentiation are shut off in cancers. "These are genes that may need to be active during a certain period of development but once you have committed to become a ...

Grant supports LSUHSC research on how like cell receptor systems determine very different functions

... by hormones and drugs. "We are interested in how the generic ERK signaling pathway confers specific physiological outcomes such as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration," notes Dr. Catling. "We hypothesize that specificity is conferred by the action of input- and output-specific 'scaffolding' ...

A genetic basis for schizophrenia

... and colleagues focus on the role of Disc1 in development, particularly the migration of cells to their proper location in the brain and subsequent differentiation into their intended fate. During development, cells need to properly migrate to their final destination in order to develop into the appropriate ...

Flexible neck in cell-receptor DC-SIGN targets more pathogens

... the binding behavior of DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin), also known as CD209 (Cluster of differentiation 209), the researchers used a device called a surface force apparatus. The surface force apparatus measures the molecular forces between two ...

Tumor suppressor gene in flies may provide insights for human brain tumors

... explicitly show that the fruitfly protein PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) suppresses brain tumor formation and controls the balance of self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells," said Hongyan Wang, Ph.D, assistant professor of neuroscience and behavioral disorders, and senior author of a paper published ...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... also required for the trafficking of Delta to the top of the actin structure," said Bellen. Notch signaling is required for proper development, differentiation and activation of a class of immune cells called the T-cells. T-cell function is compromised in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Since the ...

Scientists sequence genome of the N2-fixing, soil-living bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii

... ability to adapt its metabolism to diverse sources of nutrients. For example, if no carbon source is present, A. vinelandii will undergo a differentiation process, forming cysts that are resistant to desiccation and other chemical and physical challenges. A. vinelandii belongs to the ...

Dioxins in food chain linked to breastfeeding ills

... milk production were sustaining so much damage that rodents could not nourish their offspring. The next step is to understand what controls the differentiation process. An important question to answer, Lawrence said, is whether the toxic harm is occurring directly in the breast, or if it occurs throughout ...

Jefferson receives $1.7 million grant to study stem cells in intervertebral discs of the spine

... grant funded by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases to study mechanisms regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation with the aim of regenerating diseased and painful intervertebral discs. A previous study by the same group showed that stem cells exist in both ...

One size does not fit all

... a result of simvastatin treatment. The findings also suggest that simvastatin inhibits CNS remyelination by blocking oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation or maturation into myelinating oligodendrocytes." This study underscores the necessity of monitoring the long-terms effects of CNS accessible ...

HudsonAlpha investigator develops rapid response swine flu test

... physician or healthcare facility. Han also developed the Tem-PCR avian flu test for the Asian strain H5N1, as well as a respiratory infection differentiation test used during the SARS outbreak in China earlier this decade. These tests played a significant role in preventing the spread of SARS and avian flu ...

Hebrew University researchers neutralize tumor growth in embryonic stem cell therapy

... work paves the way for further progress in the promising field of stem cell therapy. Human embryonic stem cells are theoretically capable of differentiation to all cells of the mature human body (and are hence defined as "pluripotent"). This ability, along with the ability to remain undifferentiated ...

New diagnostic advance seen for head, throat cancer

... to be a cancer "stem" or "progenitor" cell, which has a greater potential to generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. Therefore, targeting cancer stem cells holds promise for improvement of survival and quality of life of cancer patients. ...
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