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Cytotoxic in Biological News

A double-barreled immune cell approach for neuroblastoma

... from the body too quickly to have an anti-cancer effect. However, cytotoxic T cells that already have a natural receptor for the Epstein-Barr virus ... effect they trampoline off the virus and onto the tumor." Thus these cytotoxic T-lymphocytes remain in the body because they are constantly stimulated by ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- June 25, 2008

... of polyphenols. The polyphenols work not only to prevent generation of cytotoxic compounds, but also as compounds which prevent the absorption of cytotoxic compounds from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood stream. MTS ...

New drug shows promise in treating drug-resistant prostate cancer

... to try to develop drugs that prevent that renewed resistance." For years, no treatment was available for CRPC; recently paclitaxel a strongly cytotoxic drug was approved. ...

TGen Clinical Research Services at Scottsdale Healthcare and Mayo Clinic study new cancer drug

... the tumor occurs. After conversion to the active form of the drug, the more resistant hypoxic cells are exposed to high concentrations of released cytotoxic agent, which can also diffuse into the oxygenated regions of a tumor cell. The Phase 1/2 trials are investigating the safety and activity of ...

Viral recombination another way HIV fools the immune system

... of more complex strains of HIV." Part of the immune system's response against HIV is carried out by HIV-specific CD8 T cells, also called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which can identify and kill virus-infected cells. Previous PARC/MGH research showed that the effectiveness of the CTL response ...

Mitochondrial cholesterol makes response to chemotherapy difficult in hepatic cancer

... the study, IIBB-CSIC-IDIBAPS researchers describe how the increase of cholesterol in the mitochondrial membrane plays a key role in the resistance to cytotoxic agents acting via mitochondrion, including doxorubicin, a common drug in chemotherapy. This research has been developed in the framework of the ...

Research identifies first method for testing, assessing drug treatments for Chagas' disease

... develops a stable, protective memory. This idea of memory is at the heart of the study, and it involves T-cells, specifically one kind called cytotoxic or killer T-cells, which are blood-borne white blood cells that destroy T. cruzi-infected cells in the case of Chagas disease and virally infected ...

Yale scientists create artificial 'cells' that boost the immune response to cancer

... that lead to T-cell proliferation in the body. It also causes a fast and effective stimulation of the patients T-cells particularly T-cells of the cytotoxic type important for eradicating cancer. Safe and efficient T-cell stimulation and proliferation in response to specific antigens is a goal of ...

Cells get sprayed

... suitable for a large variety of cell typesmammalian cell cultures and bacteria, as well as living tissue, as was demonstrated with bird embryos. No cytotoxic reagents that could damage the cells are needed; only pure water or a cell-tolerated saline solution are used. An entire plate of cell cultures can ...

Researchers discover new tumor defense system

... encourage the body's natural defenses, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, to aid in destroying tumors. ... of reasons including a loss of the ability of the cytotoxic T lymphocytes to recognize the tumor and a ... that tumors secrete fatty acids which inhibit the cytotoxic T lymphocytes' ability to kill tumor cells. ...

Cancer vaccines -- Taking a jab at cancer by stimulating the immune system

... cells (DC) pulsed with a combination of three peptides: two that trigger cytotoxic T cells, which directly kill targeted tumor cells, and one peptide that ... T cell-specific peptides. The three groups vary on whether the cytotoxic p53 peptides are delivered alone or in combination with a helper T ...

Soft-cell approach cuts animal tests

... by Dr Amanda Hayes and her UNSW colleagues, Shahnaz Bakand and Chris Winder, directly exposes human cells to airborne toxicants and measures cytotoxic effects. The cells are grown on a porous polyester membrane inside a small diffusion chamber and then exposed to selected toxic air pollutants. After ...

Novel antigen-cloning technique may boost efforts to develop a melanoma vaccine

... and Immunology programs at Wistar. "Most of the melanoma vaccines currently in development work to activate a type of white blood cell called cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, or CTL," says Herlyn. "Though CTL have the ability to destroy cancer cells, they don't have the ability to call upon the full ...

Finnish scientists discovered a new approach to treat virus-induced lymphomas

... p53 and MDM2, and that the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a disrupts the p53-MDM2-LANA complex and selectively induces massive apoptosis in PEL cells. The cytotoxic effect of Nutlin-3a was specific for the KSHV-infected cells since Nutlin-3a did not induce apoptosis in lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with ...

How T lymphocytes attack

... Our body's defences against an infection or tumour are based on a string of actors, some of them generalists, the others highly specialised. cytotoxic T lymphocytes belong to the second category. To achieve their task, their cell surface carries a membrane receptor which is complementary to the ...

Early-stage immune system control of HIV may depend on inherited factors

... on their surface membranes via HLA Class II proteins. Virally infected cells display viral proteins on HLA Class I molecules, which activate the CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes that usually destroy infected cells. Although the CD8 response against HIV is ultimately ineffective in protecting infection, several ...

'Super' enzyme may lead way to better tumor vaccines

... longer your dendritic cells are alive and active, the more likely you are to expand the appropriate T-helper repertoire and ultimately the desirable cytotoxic (cell killing) T-lymphocytes." "The dendritic cells are the master switch in the immune system. They decide whether there will be a robust immune ...

HIV-1 kills immune cells in the gut that may never bounce back

... killed off. Some of the T cells self-destruct (a process called activation-induced cell death or apoptosis), while some appear to be killed by other cytotoxic immune cells. "These papers speak strongly to HIV pathogenesis, to HIV therapy, and to understanding how the host and virus interact," ...

Antibody extends life of mice with breast cancer

... metastatic process," said Rittenhouse-Olson. "Not only would drugs attached to the antibody JAA-F11 bind to the tumor cell surface to direct their cytotoxic effect, but the binding of the antibody itself would block the cell from metastasizing." The antibody was tested using in vitro models of tumor ...

Quality not quantity important for immune response to HIV

... (HTCs) regulate the body's immune response and it is the loss of these cells that leads to the development of AIDS. Another type of T cell, the cytotoxic T cell (CTC), recognises and attacks infected HTCs. It was previously thought that the bigger the CTC response, the more effective it would be. It is ...

Three-in-one virus killer prevents common, often fatal infections

... Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health, tested the first multivirus killer of its kind, called Trivirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which control infections caused by three commonplace viruses ?cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus. ...

Researchers add crucial information on how the body's T cells react to parasitic diseases

... the daunting complexity of the processes. There are actually several kinds of T cells, and the ones Tarleton and his colleagues studied are the cytotoxic T cell, which scientists call CD8+. What they discovered is that the T cell response in T. cruzi is highly focused on a relatively small set of ...

Mice lacking key immune component still control chronic viral infections

... such as EBV and KSHV increases the risk of some cancers, especially in persons with weakened immune systems. Immune system cells known as CD8 or cytotoxic T cells are responsible for recognizing virus-infected cells and killing them or sounding alarms that summon other defensive measures. To enable this ...

APS lecturer shows rare video of 'teacher-student' immune cell interactions in live animal

... as harboring a pathogen without going on a rampage and annihilating everything in sight. "There must be a control mechanism that can keep these cytotoxic cells in check," von Andrian noted. The immune system does this by creating regulatory T cells to control the effector cells, he said. Previous ...

Chemical guidance of T cells leads to immunologic memory and long-term immunity

... living mouse shortly after a vaccination. The videos reveal that the movement of a specific type of immune cell known as a CD8+ T cell, also called a cytotoxic T cell, is not random as was previously thought, but instead is guided by chemical signals released from other cells. Scientists have long ...

Botox could help target resistant tumors for treatment

... bed to alleviate tumor hypoxia. "Hypoxia is a source of resistance to radiotherapy, and is a determining factor in the poor prognosis of tumors to cytotoxic treatments," said Gallez. "Botulinum toxin could lead to inhibition of contractions of tumor vessels, improve tumor perfusion and oxygenation, and ...

Researchers use 'trickery' to create immune response against melanoma

... and efficiency. Once bound to prostate cancer cells, the nanoparticle/aptamer bioconjugates were internalised making it possible for their cytotoxic payload to get released directly inside the cancer cells. The combination of targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs at the site of cancer ...

Targeted drug delivery achieved with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates

... and efficiency. Once bound to prostate cancer cells, the nanoparticle/aptamer bioconjugates were internalised making it possible for their cytotoxic payload to get released directly inside the cancer cells. The combination of targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs at the site of cancer ...

Virus uses tiny RNA to evade the immune system

... T antigen is made late in the infectious cycle, just when T antigen is no longer essential for virus replication. Further experiments showed that cytotoxic immune cells were more likely to kill cells infected with a mutant virus that cannot make the microRNA than the normal virus. Thus, microRNA-induced ...

Scientists identify molecular events that drive cell senescence

... vaccine." Said Dr. Rosenberg: "When we vaccinated the mice with the mouse form of the amyloid gene, they made lots of antibodies without stimulating cytotoxic T cells. When we get to human studies, we hope to show that humans can make human antibodies against the amyloid as well." Current treatments for ...

Gene vaccine for Alzheimer's disease shows promising results

... vaccine." Said Dr. Rosenberg: "When we vaccinated the mice with the mouse form of the amyloid gene, they made lots of antibodies without stimulating cytotoxic T cells. When we get to human studies, we hope to show that humans can make human antibodies against the amyloid as well." Current treatments for ...
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