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Cytoskeleton in Biological News

Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds

... are known to be key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and affect many aspects of neuronal development," Van Aelst notes. The actin cytoskeleton is the gossamer, filament-like scaffolding that ... spines, where it locally regulates the actin cytoskeleton -- as it turns out, in proximity to another ...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

... findings point to a type of feedback loop. "The cytoskeleton changes the shape of the cell and the shape of ... or dendrite, or new shape, simply adjust the cytoskeleton accordingly, and the shape will follow suit. ... for making changes to the organization of the cytoskeleton and therefore the shape of a cell: microtubules, ...

New chemical tool kit manipulates mitochondria, reveals insights into drug toxicity

... Our data shows that when we disrupt the cytoskeleton of the cell, that sends a message to boost the ... says Mootha. The connection between the cytoskeleton and mitochondrial gene expression has never been ... foremost being the relationship between the cytoskeleton and mitochondria. They also plan on using this ...

Mayo Clinic researchers discover and manipulate molecular interplay that moves cancer cells

... of these migrating tumor cells. "The events that reorganize the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge are complex a multitude of molecules act in concert," ... off if cancer cells are to migrate." Actin filaments help make up the cytoskeleton of cells. For cancer cells to move, the actin-based cell structure has to ...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... the cellulose synthase complexes to their place of action. They also looked at the role in trafficking of a structural element called the actin cytoskeleton that helps move organelles and maintains the cell's shape. They found that it appears to be required for the general distribution of the cellulose ...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

... motors on the arms of chromosomes that push against cells' microtubules. Microtubules are long, thin tubes that form a central component of the cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle. They serve as intracellular structural supports and as railways along which molecular motors move cargoes such as ...

MBL director and CEO and cell biology pioneer Gary Borisy elected to National Academy of Sciences

... Borisy first came to the MBL in 1965 as a student and returned in 1972 to establish a summer laboratory where he conducted research for five years on cytoskeleton formation. He also served as a consultant to the MBL's Physiology course in 1982 and 1983. As director and CEO, Dr. Borisy has played a key role ...

Locking parasites in host cell could be new way to fight malaria

... to survive. When parasites burst out of an infected cell, they leave a mess behind, shredding the dense meshwork of proteins comprising the host cell cytoskeleton and breaking the cell apart, causing cell death. But researchers were unsure what proteins the parasites were using as tools to help them break ...

Vanderbilt scientists invent world's smallest periscopes

... the specialized region of a cell next to the nucleus that is the assembly point where the microscopic polymer tubes that serve as part of the cell's cytoskeleton are assembled before cell division and broken down afterwards. The mirrored pyramidal wells provide a high resolution, multi-vantage-point form ...

Rong Li Lab probes mechanism of asymmetry in meiotic cell division

... of development stays with the daughter cell that retains the identy of the oocyte. "This work revealed the general mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton drives chromosome movement in mammalian meiotic oocytes," said Hongbin Li, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate and lead author on the publication. "Our ...

Scientists identify a molecule that coordinates the movement of cells

... to power this movement from within but also coordinate it by linking two fiber-like proteins called f-actin and microtubules, which together form the cytoskeleton and help give cells their shape. "Inside the cell, actin cables converge at focal adhesions at the cell's leading edge," Fuchs explains. "We ...

Expanding cell girth indicates seriousness of breast cancer

... it swells. The cell expansion results because as cancer develops, it compromises the cell's structure, or cytoskeleton. A metastatic cancer cell cytoskeleton is more prone to deformity than a primary cancer cell or a normal cell, said Lu, an assistant professor of agricultural and biological engineering. ...

Biophysical Society names 2009 award recipients

... Award for Young Investigators for his outstanding seminal contributions in diverse areas of cell biology, particularly to our understanding of cell cytoskeleton dynamics and function using speckle microscopy. Julio Fernandez of Columbia University will receive the 2009 U.S. Genomics Award for Outstanding ...

Newly defined signaling pathway could mean better biofuel sources

... then translate that information to a signal that says, 'Grow here, or modify or reinforce the cell wall here.' Or how does a cell know to make new cytoskeleton filaments at a certain time and place to define regions of growth that determine the cell's shape and size?" Actin filaments comprise the ...

Moss protein plays role in Alzheimer's disease

... functions and determine their contribution to disease. In moss, the mutant phenotypes suggest presenilin might play a role in signal gathering, cytoskeleton organization and/or cell wall composition and organization. Quatrano and Khandelwal are checking that out. Kopan, Chandu and others are searching ...

University of Chicago launches research program in catastrophic deformation

... its more solid-like properties," Gardel said. "By looking at the dynamics of those short timescales, you can extract information about how rigid the cytoskeleton is." ...

Molecular Biology of the Cell celebrates 25 years of publication

... Sorting 13. Intracellular Vesicular Traffic 14. Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 15. Mechanisms of Cell Communication 16. The cytoskeleton 17. The Cell Cycle 18. Apoptosis V. Cells in Their Social Context 19. Cell Junctions, Cell Adhesion, and the Extracellular Matrix 20. ...

Natural compound in broccoli could treat devastating genetic skin disorder

... from mutations in genes that produce the proteins keratin 5 (K5) and keratin 14 (K14). These proteins co-polymerize to form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton in basal keratinocytes. Since the discovery in 1991 that EBS is a keratin-based disease, more than 40 additional disorders affecting a broad range of ...

Neural stem cell study reveals mechanism that may play role in cancer

... of gap junctions during neuronal migration. Further study revealed that the Cx43 and Cx26 molecular subunits interact with the neurons internal cytoskeleton to stabilize it on its path. A series of time-lapse, live imaging studies of migrating neurons illuminated this phenomenon: The neurons start out ...

Bioengineers at University of Pennsylvania devise nanoscale system to measure cellular forces

... professor in the Department of Bioengineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Penn, said. This suggests that either the cells cytoskeleton dictates the reaction or the cell organizes a biochemical response. In either instance, cells are adapting at the microscale. The findings prove ...

Bedsores and bald hides: Novel roles revealed for a 'scaffolding' protein

... has profound implications for our understanding of the role of the cytoskeleton in damaged cells," Coulombe says. When the skin of normal mice is ... and genetically controlled death program. The team found that the K17 cytoskeleton protein is required to physically interact with a protein that is known to ...

Scientists discover that host cell lipids facilitate bacterial movement

... monocytogenes invades the body, it commandeers its host cell's actin cytoskeleton to invade other cells. In a report published in the Journal of Biological ... anew. Essentially Listeria takes over or hijacks the host cell's actin cytoskeleton to move within cells, and to spread from cell to cell." In most cells, ...

Study of genomic DNA leads to new advances in cancer diagnostics

... that gives the cell its shape, in this process. Changes to the ECM and cytoskeleton are critical to migration of a cancer cell from one site in the body to ... cell interacts with its microenvironment (ECM) and direct changes to the cytoskeleton and finally to the chromatin. Such changes can now be measured directly at ...

Novel ultrafast laser detection of cancer cells also may improve understanding of stem cells

... especially those arising from alterations in protein density, cytoskeleton shape, and distribution of mitochondria - changes that occur when a cell ... an insurgent terrorist with a very well-defined agenda. It rearranges the cytoskeleton and the arrangement of mitochondria in the cell. It's no longer a ...

Cellular message movement captured on video

... Hu revealed that red-labeled paxillin is linked to green-labeled actin filaments, the thinnest of three types of protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton of cells of higher organisms. Paxillin either slides along the actin filaments or is pulled by them. In a surprise, Chien and Hu also showed that ...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

... may guide cell movement and possibly cancer cell invasion. Microtubules are the largest of the three main types of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton -- a web of microscopic fibers inside the cell. They form when two globular proteins, alpha- and beta-tubulin, polymerize into long chains, ...

UCSD researchers create roadmap to integrin activation

... the inside of an integrin or family of integrins ?delivers the critical activation signal. Talin is very important in the linkage between a cell's cytoskeleton and integrins, linkages that cells use to migrate, for example. They noticed that platelets a have much higher concentration of talin that most ...

Adult stem cells are touchy-feely, need environmental clues

... the stem cell needs to move its cellular muscles triggers an internal chemical signal that, in turn, directs the cell to differentiate. "The cytoskeleton uses motors that, like our muscles, are based on the mechanical tension created by molecules of actin and myosin," Engler said. "When we deprive ...

New insight into machinery of immune cells' 'tentacles'

... involving a key cell regulatory enzyme called Abl. And Abl had already been shown to regulate remodeling of the cell's structure -- called the cytoskeleton -- that includes actin polymerization. Such remodeling is a key process in cellular growth and adaptation. The researchers sought to understand ...

Forsyth scientists gain greater understanding of how embryos differentiate left from right

... screen implicated the H+-pump H+-V-ATPase in Xenopus (frog) embryo asymmetry, where it directs left- and right-sided gene expression. The cell cytoskeleton is responsible for the LR-asymmetric localization of this pump during the first few cell cleavages in frog embryos. H+-flux across plasma membranes ...

Sea coral's trick helps scientists tag proteins

... protein does and where it goes. To test how well the new tag labeled and tracked target proteins, the team fused Dendra to proteins that form the cytoskeleton of the cell, including actin and tubulin filaments and found the expected patterns of intracellular protein distribution. Dendra belongs to a ...

How nerve cells stay in shape

... spines, the cell only produced long, thin protuberances (see image 2), similar in shape to immature synapses. A more detailed analysis of the actin cytoskeleton offered the first evidence for a possible explanation for the observed synapse changes. Actin is a central protein in the cell's skeleton, which ...

Telling axons where to go - and grow

... the kinase LIMK1, targeting it for proteosomal degradation in the growth cones of hippocampal neurons. LIMK1 regulates the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton primarily via phosphorylation of the actin depolymerization factors ADF/cofilin, with important consequences for cell morphology, cell motility, and ...

UIC researchers show protein routes messages in nerve cells

... it functions as a sorting agent to ensure that only the correct type of receptor gets attached. The work by the researchers also identifies the cytoskeleton proteins to which the receptors are tied: actin. "Many researchers have identified proteins that interact with glutamate receptors, but there's ...

Defect in gene causes 'neuralgic amyotrophy'

... system or why mutations give rise to HNA. They do know that other members of the Septin family are involved in the cell division that forms the cytoskeleton and in the development of tumors. The fact that mutations in Septin 9 prevent cell division from occurring properly can perhaps explain why so many ...

Key mechanism in genetic inheritance during cell division identified

... vitro tests that Dam1 ring formation strengthens the microtubules." Thousands of microtubule fibers are woven together to form a highly flexible cytoskeleton in biological cells that gives shape to cell walls and other structures, and controls the transportation of substances in and out of a cell. During ...
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