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Cytoplasm in Biological News

Nanoneedle is small in size, but huge in applications

... delivery of one or more molecules into the cytoplasm or the nucleus of living cells. In addition to ... individual fluorescent quantum dots in a cell's cytoplasm and nucleus. The quantum dots can be used for ... via "linker" molecules. When placed in a cell's cytoplasm or nucleus, the bonds with the linker molecules ...

New study overturns orthodoxy on how macrophages kill bacteria

... species kill the bacteria by going into the cytoplasm and causing DNA damage," said medical ... against ROS. There are two such enzymes in the cytoplasm of S. typhimurium , called SodA and SodB, and ... that the superoxide dismutases in the bacterial cytoplasm are most likely protecting the bacterium from its ...

Artificial cells, simple model for complex structure

... in developing simple experimental models for cytoplasm organization," she told attendees at the 2009 ... Association for the Advancement of Science. cytoplasm is the material that fills the cell and is ... and the nucleus. Unlike organelles, the cytoplasm is a fundamental feature of all cells. Many ...

Newly identified role for 'power plants' in human cells could lead to targeted therapies

... determined that tRNAs can be imported from cytoplasm to mitochondria in rat liver cells and human ... should be able to bring a healthy tRNA from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria and correct the ... to rely on the import process that starts in the cytoplasm to transfer healthy tRNAs to damaged mitochondria ...

Simple model cell is key to understanding cell complexity

... her colleagues built a model cell using as the cytoplasm a solution of two different polymers: ... work demonstrated the interrelationship of the cytoplasm and the cell membrane," said Keating. The ... a cascade in polarity. "By creating a model cytoplasm with different compositions, we demonstrated that ...

Regulation of cell proliferation by the OGF-OGFr axis is dependent on nuclear localization signals

... complex involves the shuttling of the peptide-receptor complex from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as transport receptors. The research team was ... is dependent on shuttling of the peptide and the OGF receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This discovery may provide valuable information to ...

Rong Li Lab probes mechanism of asymmetry in meiotic cell division

... formin-2. This protein allows the oocyte to retain the majority of the cytoplasm a requirement for embryonic development after fertilization while the ... the actin filaments orient the cell division plane so that most of the cytoplasm required to sustain the earliest stages of development stays with the ...

Got zinc? New zinc research suggests novel therapeutic targets

... placebo group. Specifically, cell activation stimulated the zinc transporter in T cells called "ZIP8," which transports stored zinc into the cell cytoplasm where it then alters the expression of a T cell protein in a way needed to fight infections. "As the debate over zinc supplementation in healthy ...

Study by NTU professors provides important insight into apoptosis or programmed cell death

... stages of apoptosis. Under normal circumstances, there is a high distribution of RanGTP in the nucleus and a low concentration of RanGTP in the cytoplasm (the body enveloping the cell's nucleus). It is this gradient of RanGTP that exist across the nuclear-cytoplasmic boundaries that serves as a track ...

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona researchers first to clone mice in Spain

... cumulus cells from several female mice. The chromosomes were extracted from each of the oocytes and substituted with a cell from the cumulus by cytoplasm injection. Once the oocytes had been reconstructed, they were activated by simulating the stimuli occurring during fecundation so as to induce ...

Sugarcoating fruit fly development

... nucleus of a cell is vital for normal development in fruit flies. Over 25 years ago scientists discovered that many proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm have a small sugar molecule, called GlcNAc, attached to them. The enzyme that adds this sugar is called Ogt but since its discovery it has remained ...

CSHL researchers pinpoint structure-building role for 2 non-coding RNAs

... thought ncRNAs were a good candidate for such a role, especially since many of them stay in the nucleus instead of getting expelled into the cell's cytoplasm like their protein-coding RNA cousins. ncRNAs localize to paraspeckles Cells usually increase their production of ncRNAs when they ramp up ...

Jefferson scientists discover a key protein regulator of inflammation and cell death

... but also discovered how this protein reacts to DNA and causes inflammation. The inflammatory response triggered when AIM2 binds to foreign DNA in the cytoplasm is the body's way of alerting other systems that there is a danger present in the cell." According to Dr. Alnemri, the activation of AIM2 also ...

Mutant host cell protein sequesters critical HIV-1 element

... process called transcription. The mRNA molecules must be properly "spliced", or rearranged, and then transported out of the cell nucleus and into the cytoplasm where the mRNAs can be "translated" into viral proteins. "Although there has been a great deal of effort directed at understanding HIV-1 ...

Solar-powered sea-slugs live like plants, prof says

... The sea slug, however, works a little differently. Its main food source is a specific type of alga. "It makes a cut in the alga, sucks out the cytoplasm [the material inside the alga] and digests most of it," explains Manhart. But there's a twistit retains the plastids that trap the solar energy. ...

Bacterial biofilms as fossil makers

... online via the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences "Early Edition" as early as Nov. 24. "The bacteria consume and replace all the cytoplasm in the cells, generating a little sculpture of the embryo," said Elizabeth Raff, the report's lead author. "We did find, however, that certain ...

New research helps explain genetics of Parkinson's disease

... To learn more about Parkin's role in cells, Narendra et al. examined the protein's subcellular location. They found that Parkin was present in the cytoplasm of most cells, but translocated to mitochondria in cells that had undergone mitochondrial damage such as membrane depolarization. Damaged ...

How eating fruit and vegetables can improve cancer patients' response to chemotherapy

... and suggests an avenue for developing safe chemotherapy via naturally occurring agents. Normally, cells have low levels of p53 diffused in their cytoplasm and nucleus. When DNA in the nucleus is damaged, p53 moves to the nucleus where it activates genes that stop cell growth and cause cell death. In ...

Cellular self-eating promotes pancreatitis

... autophagy can have a down side, destroying the pancreas by prematurely activating a digestive enzyme. In autophagy, a vesicle swallows a portion of cytoplasm and ferries it to the lysosome for digestion. The process is often beneficial, allowing hungry cells to recycle molecules, for example. However, the ...

New technique yields more detailed picture of chromatin structure

... the chromosomes. We can now apply this same live-cell labeling method to study at high resolution many different GFP-tagged proteins in the cell cytoplasm or nucleus, said Andrew Belmont, a professor of cell and developmental biology and senior author of the paper. In trying to understand ...

RING finger protein 5 may guide treatment for muscle disease in older adults

... eventually fails to handle the overload, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the cytoplasmic vacuoles, structures within the cell cytoplasm which are characteristic of sIBM patients. Whether RNF5 is the primary cause for sIBM, or an important contributor in the development of this ...

Humans not the major target of Shiga toxin

... Tetrahymena and Shiga-packing E. coli. The Koudelka and Hennessey labs are continuing to characterize the route of Shiga toxin entry into the cytoplasm of Tetrahymena, its mode of killing, and the ability of Tetrahymena to develop resistance to Shiga toxin. The protozoan might make a model cellular ...

UVA researchers explain cell response to skin-damaging UV rays

... and stop responding to stimuli until they are repaired, Macara explains. We detail in this paper how a certain protein, called SOCS7, moves from the cytoplasm into the cell nucleus and essentially instructs the cell to stop dividing via a protein called NCK. The role of SOCS7 is both to stop outside signals ...

Researchers identify proteins involved in new neurodegenerative syndrome

... of messenger RNA. Messenger RNA or mRNA takes the proteins blueprint from the DNA in the cell nucleus to the protein-manufacturing ribosome in the cytoplasm (the jelly-like material that fills the cells interior). Studying fruit flies, Botas and his colleagues found two RNA-binding proteins hnRNP ...

'Shuttling' protein possibly key to resilience of cancer cells

... time that ATF2 constantly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus." The researchers found that ... ATF2 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm because of an inadequate amount of c-Jun in the ... overexpressed ATF2 also may be localized in the cytoplasm in cancer cells, Hu said. The Purdue ...

Cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in carp-goldfish clones

... cloned from nuclei of common carp and egg cytoplasm of goldfish, were virtually identical to the ... is controlled by the egg cytoplasm. Thus the egg cytoplasm of the recipient goldfish directs segmentation of ... of the contributions of the nucleus and egg cytoplasm to the growth and development of vertebrates. ...

Molecular steps involved in the creation of gene-silencing microRNAs identified

... identified a three-protein complex that picks up the process in the cell cytoplasm and carries it through to the maturation of the finished miRNAs. Taken ... suppression. The study identifies three proteins that work together in the cytoplasm to create finished miRNAs. Individually, each of the proteins was known ...

Bound for destruction: Ubiquitination protects against improper Notch signaling

... of an intracellular region of the Notch protein, loosing it into the cytoplasm and triggering the activation of transcription factors within the cell’s ... reductions of the total amount of the Notch intracellular domain in the cytoplasm of treated cells. Taken together, these results suggested that Nedd4 works ...

Gladstone investigators identify a new protective action for the powerful anti-HIV factor, APOBEC3G

... RNA protein complex, Chiu determined, interrupts this retro-element replication cycle by binding the retro-element RNAs and sequestering them in the cytoplasm away from the nuclear machinery required for copying the RNA back into DNA and inserting the retro-element at a new chromosomal site. ...

Cellular traffic backups implicated in skeletal malformations

... compartment just outside the cell's nucleus. Proteins are then "packaged" into transport containers called vesicles, which traverse the gelatinous cytoplasm of the cell's interior. The vesicles eventually dock with the Golgi, a structure that resembles a pancake stack and is the last major "transit ...

Gene first linked to rare disease may trigger skin cancer, other tumors

... the problem," Fässler said. "Bcl-3 is normally under tight regulation; it is primarily found out in the cytoplasm, with very little in the nucleus." cytoplasm is the clear, jelly-like material in which all the cell's components are suspended. "In animals deficient for CYLD, much too much Bcl-3 makes it ...

Scientists identify molecular structure of key viral protein

... and cellular membranes. The protein opens the inside of the virus to the inside of the cell, delivering the viruses genetic information into the cytoplasm of the cell to infect it." In the process the protein moves from its first folded state, the metastable state (pre-fusion), to its second, final ...

Lactic acid not athlete's poison, but an energy source - if you know how to use it

... showed that endurance training increased the number of lactate transporter molecules in mitochondria, evidently to speed uptake of lactate from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria for burning. The new paper and a second paper to appear soon finally provide direct evidence for the hypothesized connection ...

Twin molecular scissors link creation of microRNAs with gene-silencing

... In their next study, published in Nature earlier this year, the Wistar group described a three-protein complex that picks up the process in the cell cytoplasm and carries it through to the maturation of the finished miRNAs. Now, in new findings published online November 3 in Cell, Wistar professor Ramin ...

Sleeping sickness parasite shows how cells divide their insides

... important is the way a cell prepares its internal organelles for distribution. Warren studies the Golgi complex, a membrane compartment in the cytoplasm that delivers newly-made proteins to different membranes in the cell. "Basal bodies in particular and centrosomes in general have been implicated ...

How Rickettsial pathogens break into cells

... the first Rickettsial receptor ever identified. "This receptor is a subunit of a protein complex present mainly in the nucleus, but also in the cell cytoplasm and at the cell membrane," said Cossart. "We have thus used several approaches to establish our findings definitively." Ku70 is probably not the only ...

MSKCC researchers uncover structure of key protein complex in cells

... MSKCC researchers believe the protein complex they have observed is assembled at nuclear pore complexes, portals that connect the nucleus with the cytoplasm beyond. These conduits permit the transfer of information both to and from the nucleus, and are vital to proper cell function. "The next step in ...

Study shows how retinoic acid enters a cell's nucleus

... the first time how the cancer-fighting vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) gains entry into a cell's nucleus. When vitamin A enters a cell's cytoplasm (the portion that lies between the outer membrane and the nucleus), it can be converted to RA, a member of a group of compounds that enter a cell's ...

Newly discovered genetic disease sheds light on body's water balance

... binds to the V2R, it stimulates a chain of events inside the cell. Vesicles containing the water channel Aquaporin 2 (AQP-2) are shuttled from the cytoplasm to the apical membrane of the collecting duct kidney cells. This process increases water permeability and diminishes urine output from the kidneys. ...
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(Date:9/16/2014)... (17 September, 2014)More than $100 trillion in cumulative ... annual carbon dioxide (CO2)a 40 percent reduction of ... if the world expands public transportation, walking and ... released by the University of California, Davis, and ... , Further, an estimated 1.4 million early ...
(Date:9/16/2014)... us that we inherit certain traits from our parents ... how these genes play out by taking certain drugs ... exactly what a team of researchers at the Boston ... research of epigenetics research. , Epigenetics regulates gene ... and histone proteins, which prevent permanent mutations or alterations ...
(Date:9/16/2014)... that spelled doom for the dinosaurs 66 million years ... a much greater extent than their deciduous peers, according ... are published in the journal PLOS Biology . ... of thousands of fossilized leaves of angiosperms ... to reconstruct the ecology of a diverse plant community ...
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