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Cranial in Biological News

Lithium may help radiation target cancer, spare healthy tissue

... brain tissue from damage that may occur during cranial radiation treatments. cranial irradiation is part of standard therapy for both ... confirmed these findings in mice treated with cranial radiation. The results suggest that lithium ...

'Hobbit' fossils represent a new species, concludes University of Minnesota anthropologist

... Using 3D modeling methods, McNulty and his fellow researchers compared the cranial features of this real-life "hobbit" to those of a simulated fossil human ... published online this month in the Journal of Human Evolution . The cranial structure of the fossilized skull, says the study, clearly places it in ...

The 'hole' story

... from the pelvis of a juvenile male led researchers to project that the cranial circumference and capacity of newborn Homo erectus babies was 30 percent ... This is at the lower end of the spectrum of modern day human beings whose cranial circumferences at birth typically range from 320-370 millimeters. Semaw ...

The "hole" story

... from the pelvis of a juvenile male led researchers to project that the cranial circumference and capacity of newborn Homo erectus babies was 30 percent ... This is at the lower end of the spectrum of modern day human beings whose cranial circumferences at birth typically range from 320-370 millimeters. Semaw ...

A genetic basis for schizophrenia

... resulting in disease. The first paper, published in the July 2009 online issue of the journal Development , followed the role of Disc1 in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells, which are multi-potent cells that give rise to multiple cell types including craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral ...

Clinical trial shows quadriplegics can operate powered wheelchair with tongue drive system

... system because unlike hands and feet, which are controlled by the brain through the spinal cord, the tongue is directly connected to the brain by a cranial nerve that generally escapes damage in severe spinal cord injuries or neuromuscular diseases. Before using the Tongue Drive system, the subjects ...

Komodo even more deadly than thought: Research

... has modified salivary glands that deliver both hypertensive and anti-blood-clotting agents, which, in combination with lightweight but sophisticated cranial and dental adaptations, allows it to kill large animals through rapid blood loss." The researchers used computer modeling to analyse the Komodo ...

Bad mix of bacterial remnants and genetics leads to arthritis

... disease characterized by granulomatous arthritis (arthritis caused by bacteria), uveitis (inflammation in the middle layer of the eye), skin rash and cranial neuropathy (a disorder affecting nerves that control sight, eye movement, hearing, and taste). "Now that we know that bacterial products can ...

Early humans had 'jaws of steel'

... for a species of monkey called macaques," Spencer explained. The result a rainbow colored virtual skull that illustrates forces absorbed by the cranial structure in simulated bite scenarios and how their unusual facial features were ideally suited to support the heavy loads of cracking hard nuts. ...

Microbot motors fit to swim human arteries

... Remote controlled miniature robots small enough to swim up arteries could save lives by reaching parts of the body, like a stroke-damaged cranial artery, that catheters have previously been unable to reach (because of the labyrinthine structure of the brain that catheters are too immobile to ...

Details of evolutionary transition from fish to land animals revealed

... palate and gill arches of Tiktaalik help reveal the pattern of evolutionary change in this part of the skeleton," said Downs. "We see that cranial features once associated with land-living animals were in fact the first adaptations for life in shallow water." "The gradual evolutionary ...

Important new hair-loss gene discovered

... in men often reflects that of their maternal grandfathers. This newly discovered gene, on the other hand, may now account for the similarity in cranial hair growth between father and son. The researchers had concentrated their attention on the genomes of just under 300 men suffering from marked ...

New book further supports controversial theory of 'Man the Hunted'

... agree that Australopithecus afarensis is the common link between fossils that came before and those that came after. It shares dental, cranial and skeletal traits with both. It's also a very well-represented species in the fossil record. "Australopithecus afarensis was probably quite ...

Technique used in human ankle injuries modified to treat dogs' knees

... COLUMBIA, Mo. A common sports injury in human knees is even more common in dogs. Each year, more than one million dogs suffer from cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency, which is comparable to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in humans. The common method of treatment by ...

Marsupial lion tops African lion in fight to death

... Using a sophisticated computer modelling method [finite element (FE) analysis], that renders dynamic 3D models based on CT scans of the marsupials cranial mechanics and musculoskeletal architecture, Wroe has revealed that the creatures skull, jaw, and head and neck muscles were well adapted to using the ...

Tassie tiger no match for dingo

... and Philip Clausen, conducted the research. The simulations illustrate mechanical stresses and strains applying to the skull, jaw, teeth and cranial muscles of both animals across a range of biting, tearing and shaking motions that simulate the impact of controlling and killing a struggling prey. ...

Highly concentrated botulinum preparation for cosmetic injections can result in severe illness

... All the patients eventually reported symptoms of progressive weakness and cranial neuropathies (abnormality of the nerves that control a number of ... potentially fatal disease, which invariably presents with acute bilateral cranial neuropathies, regardless of exposure mechanism. Early recognition of ...

FSU biologist says new dinosaur is oldest cousin of Tyrannosaurus rex

... there were marked differences. Among them, in addition to its distinctive cranial crest, Guanlong was roughly 100 million years older and a fourth the size ... to full maturity by the end of its relatively long 13-year life. Its cranial crest would have reached its full size by then, thus providing an accurate ...

New sucker-footed bat discovered in Madagascar

... in the journal Mammalian Biology. The new species is obviously different from the known species based on pelage coloration, external measurements and cranial characteristics, according to the researchers. Myzopoda are often found in association with broad-leaf plants, most notably Ravenala ...

Ancient amphibians evolved a bite before migrating to dry land

... the skull roof sutures, those areas where the bones of the skull roof meet, in the living fish Polypterus as it fed. They then analyzed the same cranial junctions in several fossils -- the early amphibian Acanthostega, its fishy ancestor Eusthenopteron, and the extinct terrestrial amphibian ...

Mysterious 'neural noise' actually primes brain for peak performance

... computation in general had used up until the mid-80s: You see an image and you relate that image to one stored in your head. But the reality of the cranial world seems to be a confusing array of possibilities and probabilities, all of which are somehow, mysteriously, properly calculated. The science ...

Radiologists attempt to solve mystery of Tut's demise

... speculated that a blow to the head killed the boy king. However, Dr. Selim and colleagues found several pieces of evidence to the contrary. In the cranial cavity, they found loose bone fragments that were not covered with the intracranial solidified embalming material. These bone fragments matched ...

Study suggests evolutionary link between diet, brain size in orangutans

... Among these populations, orangutans of the Pongo pygmaeus morio species on Borneo "consistently exhibit the absolutely and relatively smallest cranial capacity," the researchers concluded. Although the researchers found reduced brain sizes in both male and female orangutans, the differences within ...

Making a face: A new and earlier marker of neural crest development

... neural crest induction operate during development," said Martín García-Castro . "Interestingly, the one we have uncovered is related to the early, cranial neural crest cells, the only ones in higher vertebrates that retain bone and cartilage forming potential." ...

Relationship of brain and skull more than just packaging

... of some intercranial joints. While craniosynostosis is considered a pathology in modern humans, it shares with evolutionary history a reduction in cranial elements and coincident changes in the shape of the skull and brain. The researchers believe that studying craniosynostosis could shed light on the ...

Duck-billed dino crests not linked to sense of smell

... dinosaurs called lambeosaurs, which are often referred to as crested duck-billed dinosaurs. Lambeosaurs are easily recognizable for their large cranial crests, which contain elongated nasal passages and loop over their skull. Duck-billed dinosaurs are sometimes referred to as the "Cows of the ...

Researchers track down cause of a disfiguring bone disorder

... density, or osteosclerosis. The effect primarily occurs in the skull and lower jaw of Van Buchem patients, causing facial distortions and pinching cranial nerves, which can lead to deafness and blindness. Collarbones, ribs and long bones can also be affected. The research team, led by Gabriela Loots ...

Mystery Blood Vessel Disorder Implicated In 'Mini' Strokes

... were more likely to have evidence of small vessel disease. Indeed, there was a direct relationship between the diameter of the basilar artery, the cranial artery most often affected in dolichoectasia, and the severity of small vessel disease. "This study is the first to show an association between ...

Potential treatments for neurofibromatosis

... of bones and curvature of the spine (scoliosis), and in many instances, learning disorders. Occasionally, tumors may develop in the brain, on cranial nerves, or on the spinal cord. However, a rare form of the disease occurs in infants and young children, with tumors growing on major nerves, such ...
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