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Cortex in Biological News

Hush little baby... Linking genes, brain and behavior in children

... The pattern of brain activity in the frontal cortex of the brain has been associated with various ... who have more activity in the left frontal cortex are characterized as temperamentally "easy" and ... greater activity in the right half of the frontal cortex are temperamentally "negative" and are easily ...

Brain's problem-solving function at work when we daydream

... activity and includes the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), the posterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction was the only ... the lateral PFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex also becomes activated when we daydream. ...

Researchers capture wave of brain activity linked to anticipation

... excitatory signals passed from the prefrontal cortex to the nearby premotor cortex. The prefrontal cortex is the brain's "executive" center, which plans ... complex cognitive behaviors. The premotor cortex and its associated systems, which include the ...

Neural mechanisms of value bias in the human visual cortex

... modulations within areas of the visual cortex and to dissociate the influence of prior rewards ... influenced activation of early regions of visual cortex that are thought to play a key role in ... activation in regions of frontal and parietal cortex that were associated with representing the ...

Pitt research identifies new target in brain for treating schizophrenia

... for the first time that the orbitofrontal cortex could be a promising target for developing future ... target glutamate. "The orbitofrontal cortex is an area that's been somewhat neglected in ... This data suggests that the orbitofrontal cortex may be a critical component in networks affected ...

Autism Speaks collaborates on grant with the Allen Institute for Brain Science and autism expert

... disorder. This unique study analyzing frontal cortex microstructure is aimed at identifying the ... detail the precise locations in the frontal cortex where specific genes are most active inside ... to the appropriate locations in the frontal cortex of the brain, and disruptions in this process can ...

Cognitive, genetic clues identified in imaging study of alcohol addiction

... People who sustain damage to the orbital frontal cortex generally suffer impaired judgment; they manage ... revealed reduced activity in the orbital frontal cortex in the brains of subjects who preferred "now"over ... a history of alcoholism. The orbital frontal cortex activity may be a neural equivalent of long-term ...

Jingle bells not merry for tone-deaf individuals

... we found that tone-deaf individuals had a thicker cortex (or grey matter) in particular brain regions ... in the learning disability dyslexia, in which the cortex is thicker in areas of the brain involved in ... The lower the score on the MBEA the thicker the cortex in musically-relevant regions of the brain. A ...

Story ideas from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics

... so far of the proteins present in the cerebral cortex the outermost layer of the brain that plays a ... cognition, and consciousness. The cerebral cortex is also the part of the brain that contains the ... disease (AD) occur mostly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and degeneration of neurons in ...

Adult brain can change, study confirms

... behavioral studies to show that the adult visual cortex does indeed reorganize-and that the change ... at MIT found evidence of plasticity in the visual cortex of adults with macular degeneration, an eye disease that deprives regions of the cortex of visual information. But another fMRI study of ...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

... discrete areas along the pathway that links the cerebellum to the motor cortex that together determine whether a mutation carrier will display clinical ... cerebellum (a region that controls movement) puts the breaks on the motor cortex by potentiating inhibition at the cortical level. It is likely that ...

Short stressful events may improve working memory

... depending on glutamate receptor-mediated excitatory signals in prefrontal cortex circuits." The investigators have expanded this research in several ... chronic stress suppresses the transmission of glutamate in the prefrontal cortex of male rodents, which is opposite to the facilitating effect of acute ...

Preclinical work shows how one gene causes severe mental retardation

... animal model to learn if this experience-dependent reorganization of the cortex was abnormal in animals that were missing the gene," said Michael Ehlers, ... dark. We speculated that similar deficits may be happening in areas of the cortex that are important for language, cognition and emotion, all of which are ...

Mental fatigue can affect physical endurance

... note is that demanding mental tasks activate the anterior cingulate cortex of the brain. Previous research has shown that rats with a lesion in the anterior cingulate cortex would not work as hard for a reward compared to rats with no lesion. This ...

Stress disrupts human thinking, but the brain can bounce back

... cells of the medial prefrontal cortex, and that a shrunken prefrontal cortex is linked to slower performance on attention-shifting tasks. In those ... to switch their foraging strategies. But while the restricted prefrontal cortex a larger version of which is thought to play a role in the "executive ...

Rice University psychologist finds women's brains recognize, encode smell of male sexual sweat

... These include the right fusiform region, the right orbitofrontal cortex and the right hypothalamus. "With the exception of the hypothalamus, neither the orbitofrontal cortex nor the fusiform region is considered to be associated with sexual ...

Risk and reward compete in brain

... for risk. The study appeared online Oct. 8 in the journal Cerebral cortex . "We can see risk as a battle between two forces," said Antoine ... patients. He and other researchers showed that the prefrontal cortex is critical for proper risk assessment. But because brain lesions ...

Color contrast is 'seen' by the brain early doors

... at the very back of the head where visual information first enters the cortex of the brain. This was recently discovered to be the case in animals but ... patient, in this case one who had portions of the right primary visual cortex surgically removed in 1973 for treatment of abnormal blood vessels in the ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... nondepressed subjects showed increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas depressed subjects showed bilateral increases, indicating ... subjects. Control subjects with the highest ventromedial pre-frontal cortex (VMPFC) activation during reappraisal showed less activation in the ...

Brain difference in psychopaths identified

... Such areas of the brain were identified as the amygdale, ie the area associated with emotions, fear and aggression, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the region which deals with decision making. There is a white matter tract that connects the amygdala and OFC, which is called the uncinate ...

Hormone clue to root growth

... showed disrupted cell proliferation. Expressing this mutant form, gai, in only one tissue, the endodermis (the innermost layer of the root cortex of a plant), was sufficient to stop the meristem enlarging. In effect, the rate of expansion of dividing endodermal cells dictates the equivalent ...

Brain malformations significantly associated with preterm birth, Wake Forest research shows

... the brain, skull, and scalp (57.7 percent); multicystic encephalomalacia, the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex (50.5 percent); and hydranencephaly, a rare condition in which the brain's cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced by sacs filled with ...

Brain-computer interface, developed at Brown, begins new clinical trial

... hand. "We learned an incredible amount with the assistance of the first participants in the BrainGate trial, not only about how the motor cortex continues to work after paralyzing illness or injury, but also about how to harness these powerful intracortical signals for controlling computers ...

How an enzyme tells stem cells which way to divide

... that one enzyme (aPKC) stands alone and acts as a traffic cop that directs which roads daughter cells will take. "Wherever aPKC is at on a cell's cortex or membrane, Miranda isn't," says Kenneth E. Prehoda, a professor in the chemistry department and member of the UO's Institute of Molecular Biology. ...

Neuroscientists discover long-term potentiation in the olfactory bulb

... real surprise in the study was the specific brain connection that changed following experience. It was a rarely-studied brain projection from the cortex back to the olfactory bulb" said Strowbridge. Neuroscientists commonly believe that the way the brain processes information is similar to ...

MIT: Making waves in the brain

... for their characteristic pattern of electrical activity. When these cells were driven with high frequency laser pulses, the illuminated region of cortex started to produce gamma oscillations. "We've shown for the first time that it is possible to induce a specific brain state by activating a specific ...

Creating ideal neural cells for clinical use

... . When the C-NPCs created using the Terskikh protocol were transplanted into mice, they became active neurons and integrated into the cortex and olfactory bulb. The transplanted cells did not generate tumor outgrowth. "The uniform conversion of embryonic stem cells into neural ...

MIT: How you feel the world impacts how you see it

... Our neurons are not tired, they are constantly adapting to the world around us." Recent studies have found that a region of the visual cortex known as MT or V5 long thought to play a major role in the perception of motion may also process tactile motion. Moore's team intends to explore ...

How mirror neurons allow us to learn and socialize by going through the motions in the head

... Mirror neurons were discovered in the 1980s by an Italian group led by Giacomo Rizzolatti, which placed electrodes in the inferior frontal cortex of macaque monkeys' brains to study neurons dedicated to control of hand movement. This led to the surprising observation that some of the neurons ...

Interaction between gene variants may alter brain function in schizophrenia

... University of Iowa and University of Minnesota through the MIND Clinical Imaging Consortium used functional MRI to scan an area of the prefrontal cortex known to be critical to working memory in 79 schizophrenia patients and 75 healthy controls as they completed a memory task. Levels of cortical ...

Social interactions can alter gene expression in the brain, and vice versa

... brain. "What's more significant to a bird than hearing another bird singing?" Clayton said. "This is going on in the equivalent of our auditory cortex and association cortex, so this is pretty high-level stuff going on in the brain. And this was happening in more or less real time by very ...

Millisecond brain signals predict response to fast-acting antidepressant

... imaging studies with conventional antidepressants had hinted that increased activity of the mood-regulating hub, called the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), signals a better response. To find out if ACC activity might also forecast response to glutamate-targeting medications, the NIMH ...

Audience Selected as Silver Winner in This Year's Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Awards and Winner of the Semiconductors Category

... and the winner of the Semiconductors category. By understanding the auditory pathway -- from the cochlea to the brainstem to the thalamus and cortex -- Audience is the first company to deliver a commercial product based on the science of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA), or the grouping and ...

The 'satellite navigation' in our brains

... over years of experience." In their study, Dr Spiers and Professor Maguire found that a part of the brain called the medial prefrontal cortex increased its activity the closer the taxi drivers came to their destination. However, it is still unclear how the brain knows which way we need to ...

Genes may make some people more prone to anxiety

... of structures that support (among other things) memory, emotional arousal and attention. The researchers said that more dopamine in the prefrontal cortex could result in an "inflexible attentional focus" on unpleasant stimuli, meaning that Met158 carriers can't tear themselves away from something ...

Distinguishing between 2 birds of a feather

... require more control over the properties of visual stimuli than a picture of a natural scene would allow." Neurons in the primary visual cortex only respond when a stimulus appears within a window covering a small part of the visual field that the eye sees. This window is known as the ...

Caltech neurobiologists discover individuals who 'hear' movement

... imaging experiments to study this connectivity in synesthetes and nonsynesthetes. "We might find that motion processing centers of the visual cortex are more interconnected with auditory brain regions than previously thought, even in the 'normal' brain," Saenz says. "At this point, very little ...

Chronic exposure to estrogen impairs some cognitive functions

... natural or synthetic estrogens, although no study has definitively proven that it does. Schantz and her colleagues had focused on the prefrontal cortex because it is rich in estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta), a protein that spurs gene expression and other activities in the cell when it binds to ...

At Boston symposium, NARSAD researchers report on genes and family traits

... individuals who carry the risk variants of both MTHFR and COMT, lower-than-normal levels of dopamine in the part of the brain called the prefrontal cortex may cause problems with information processing and working memory. Using functional neuroimaging, Dr. Roffman and his colleagues also found that the ...

Hunger hormone: Makes food more attractive

... of the brain known to be involved with reward and motivation, the same regions implicated in drug addiction the amygdala, insula, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and striatum. These areas work together to assign incentive value to objects in the world and to actions, and exert very powerful control over ...
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