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Contraction in Biological News

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

... success in numbers that could have led to the contraction of their genomes. "Larger population sizes ... suggest human genomes are still undergoing a contraction -- though you shouldn't expect to see noticeable ... very young LTRs, Lynch says, strongly suggests a contraction in overall genome sizes of the lineages of the ...

Caltech scientists show function of helical band in heart

... a sort of twisting highway along which each contraction of the heart travels. Their findings were ... we were able to see where the maximum physical contraction occurs in the heart and when--and to show that it ... loop." With each beat of the heart, a wave of contraction starts at the heart's apex--which, despite its ...

Media highlights in the Dec. 15 issue of Biophysical Journal

... lung congestion and heart failure. The force of contraction is essentially determined by the interactions of ... as the heart fills with blood. The strength of contraction is then adjusted according to the stretch of the ... Force-Length Relationship in the ADP-Induced contraction of Skeletal Myofibrils Yuta Shimamoto, ...

'Smart' flower bulbs pull themselves to deeper ground

... proteins that are so well known to drive contraction in animal muscles do not occur in plants. We ... by a hydraulic shift in cortical cells. Root contraction is stimulated by light." The research team ... light of different wavelengths indicated that the contraction response was triggered most often by blue light, ...

Heart protein regulates blood vessel maintenance

... LIM Domain Protein 2) inhibits activation of genes that are involved in contraction of smooth muscle cells by at least one of the BMPs. "We also found that FHL2 is important in the regulation of vasomotor tone, or the contraction and relaxation of muscles in the blood vessel. This is important because ...

Male impotence drugs may deserve a second look in women

... was an initial relaxation then an odd oscillation between relaxation and contraction with subsequent dosing. While they don't fully understand the swing, ... Dr. Allahdadi says. They will look at how drugs like Viagra impact that contraction in the days ahead. In fact MCG scientists suspect one reason that many ...

Pitt and University of Chicago researchers uncover process behind heart muscle contraction

... calcium content, Shroff said. The heightened calcium improves muscle contraction but also results in more energy consumption in hearts that often are ... next step involves examining HAT- and HDAC-driven regulation of cardiac contraction in the whole animal rather than just muscle samples. Then it can better ...

Eat less or exercise more? Either way leads to more youthful hearts

... connective tissue are elastic, and after ejecting blood to the body during contraction (systole), the left ventricle springs back to draw in new blood ... and connective tissue of the heart more readily sprang back after the contraction phase. This group also experienced a decrease in the internal pressure ...

WPI professor receives Fulbright Scholarship to work on tissue engineering in Ireland

... and working as a staff engineer at Organogenesis Inc. In his research he studies how the mechanical forces due to tissue stretching and cell contraction affect the growth and healing of soft tissue. His goal is to help make engineered skin, heart valves, and other tissues behave more naturally and ...

Ecologists question effects of climate change on infectious diseases

... will gain 23 million human hosts outside of its current range by the year 2050, but will lose 25 million in its current range. "The dramatic contraction of malaria during a century of warming suggests that economic forces might be just as important as climate in determining pathogen ranges," Lafferty ...

Hopkins scientists ID 10 genes associated with a risk factor for sudden cardiac death

... of sudden cardiac death largely dependent on genetic risk factors. Having identified 10 common variants of genes that modify the timing of the contraction of the heart, known as the QT interval, scientists in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, in collaboration with an international ...

Lab-on-a-chip homes in on how cancer cells break free

... as the induction time of the cell," Wildt says. "After this induction time, the cell then snaps back and contracts. We analyze the rate of the cell's contraction and then compare this information to separate cells released under different conditions using chemicals called inhibitors. From these results we are ...

Why 'lazy Susan' has a weak heart

... Laufer from Dr. Wolfgang Rottbauer's research group (Department of Cardiology) examined its muscle protein myosin light chain-1, which is involved in contraction of the heart muscle. They discovered the crucial change in the amino acid Serine 195, which was lost through mutation. This single change is ...

New light shed on marine luminescence

... and fish. In her thesis she reveals that krill, the luminescent crustacean, is equipped with special muscles that regulate light intensity through contraction and relaxation. Nitric oxide is also thought to play an important role in the bioluminescence of krill. It is produced in the small capillary ...

Scientists study full protein content of 'baker's yeast'

... why in some cases they fail to perform their 'normal' function in the body. Proteins in the body participate in every process of a cell from the contraction of muscles to immune response and scientists at the Universities of Liverpool and Manchester are using the yeast cell to understand how proteins ...

Cell 'anchors' required to prevent muscular dystrophy

... bridge to distribute the forces and keep the flexible bridge intact, Bennett said. When the protective protein layer isn't present, muscle contraction forces may break the cell membrane, toxins pour in and vital enzymes stream out. The muscle cells die. The first experiment for the new study ...

Biologists learn structure, mechanism of powerful 'molecular motor' in virus

... powerful as an automotive engine. The motors generate 20 times the force produced by the protein myosin, one of the two proteins responsible for the contraction and strength of muscles. The virus consists of a head and tail portion. The DNA-packaging motor is located in the same place where the tail ...

A model to measure soil health in the era of bioenergy

... an array of management practices, including crop residue removal, on long-term SOC levels by using this new model. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," a contraction of "C sequestration" (meaning carbon storage), is a process-based model developed by ARS scientists at the Columbia Plateau Conservation Research ...

Ecologists use oceanographic data to predict future climate change

... Over these 65 million years, the Earth has undergone several major warming and cooling episodes, which were largely mitigated by the expansion and contraction of sea ice in the Arctic. "When the Arctic cools and ice sheets and sea ice expand, the increased ice cover increases albedo, or reflectance of ...

Biophysical Society selects 2009 Distinguished Service, Emily M. Gray and Society Fellow recipients

... Fellows are: Donald M. Bers, University of California, Davis, for his contributions to the field of cellular and molecular biology of excitation contraction and coupling in the heart; Betty Gaffney, Florida State University, for being in the investigative forefront of spin labeling technology and ...

Study provides insight on a common heart rhythm disorder

... clinical electrophysiologists and geneticists in France," he added. Blood circulation through the body depends on the coordinated contraction of specialized heart cells called ventricular cardiomyocytes. Cells in the sinoatrial node have a different role -- to maintain the heart's normal ...

Hot peppers really do bring the heat

... has found that capsaicin can create "heat" in a more direct manner by altering the activity of a muscle protein called SERCA. Normally, muscle contraction initiates following the release of a wave of calcium ions from a compartment called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); SERCA then actively pumps the ...

LSUHSC awarded $10M+ COBRE grant

... risk for re-stenosis or reclosure of the arteries. Dr. Filipeanu's project will study how specific proteins in cells of blood vessels cause excessive contraction which leads to discoloration and pain in the fingers and toes of patients with Raynaud Phenomenon. Dr. Breslin's work will increase our understanding ...

'Smart' materials get smarter with ability to better control shape and size

... ion concentrations caused the fern-like structures to coil and unfurl like fiddleheads emerging from the ground in spring. Adding ions caused contraction of the tether holding the microsphere. Structures such as these could be used to create better micro- and nano-valves, motors and optics. Shear ...

Media highlights in the January issues of Biophysical Journal

... force, spasmoneme, H2A/H2B, nucleosome, AFM, aquaporin, elasticity, and epithelial cells. Volume 94, Issue 1, January 1, 2008 Power-limited contraction dynamics of Vorticella convallaria: an ultra-fast biological spring Arpita Upadhyaya, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mara Baraban, ...

AGU journal highlights -- Jan. 28, 2008

... Source: Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) paper 10.1029/2007GL032291, 2007; http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032291 3. Expansion and contraction of Mars's exosphere with solar cycle Incoming visible solar radiation heats the surface of terrestrial planets; infrared photons emitted by the ...

New mechanical insights into wound healing and scar tissue formation

... yet more growth factor that in turn stimulates other fibroblasts to become contractile. The mechanical nature of the switch ensures that the contraction only develops when the matrix is "ready." Although this process will heal a wound quickly, if left unchecked, it can also lead to a buildup of ...

How molecular muscles help cells divide

... the contractile ring is made up of muscle-like actin and myosin contractile proteins that are involved a process in some ways similar to the muscle contraction used to move arms or legs. However, there was no plausible mechanism to explain how it worked. We found that fission yeast cells assemble their ...

Life-threatening gene defect located by UT-Houston researchers

... and then enlarges, forming an aneurysm and ultimately leading to an aortic dissection, which often causes sudden death. Our results suggest that contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the aorta is important in keeping it healthy and preventing the disease, said the studys senior author, Dianna M. ...

Thinking makes it so: Science extends reach of prosthetic arms

... no longer there the impulse travels down the nerve, into his chest and causes the chest muscle to contract. The next step was to use the muscle contraction in the chest to move the prosthetic arm. This was accomplished with the help of an electromyogram (EMG), which picks up the electrical signal that ...

Similar Stem Cells In Insect And Human Gut

... who first described the workings of a nano machine. He observed the rapid contraction of a stalk tethering the cell body of a tiny protozoan, Vorticella ... the spring. This is one powerful engine, France reports. The spasmoneme's contraction is measured in nano-newtons of force and centimeters/second of speed in a ...

Are U.S. Flu Death Figures More PR Than Science?

... who first described the workings of a nano machine. He observed the rapid contraction of a stalk tethering the cell body of a tiny protozoan, Vorticella ... the spring. This is one powerful engine, France reports. The spasmoneme's contraction is measured in nano-newtons of force and centimeters/second of speed in a ...

Nano springs eternal; Protozoan 'engine' posts nano records

... who first described the workings of a nano machine. He observed the rapid contraction of a stalk tethering the cell body of a tiny protozoan, Vorticella ... the spring. This is one powerful engine, France reports. The spasmoneme's contraction is measured in nano-newtons of force and centimeters/second of speed in a ...

Algal protein in worm neurons allows remote control of behavior by light

... cells, blue-light activation of the protein was sufficient to cause strong contraction of the muscle. They found that muscle contraction was simultaneous with light exposure. The researchers went on to show ...

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

... have cilia on their outer hair cells, only mammalian outer hair cells have prestin, which drives this cellular contraction, or somatic motility. The contraction pulls the tufts of cilia downward, which maximizes the force of their vibration. In mammals, both the cilia and the cell itself vibrate. Thus far the ...

Nitric oxide: Key to cardiovascular and pulmonary function and drug effectiveness

... for asthma, lose their effectiveness over time. Nitric oxide is a molecule produced by the body that controls many functions, including the contraction or dilation of blood vessels. New experiments conducted by Duke University Medical Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have ...

When your brain talks, your muscles don't always listen

... older subjects versus younger subjects--a diminished ability of the muscle fibers to "hear" and respond to the neurons' commands. "The repeated contraction of muscles is essential to movements such as walking," Knight said. "However, our muscles have a reduced capacity to contract or 'twitch' as we grow ...

White blood cells in lung produce histamine seen in allergies

... infections and asthma and bronchitis, which are associated with allergy. "In both, we observe inflammation –?swelling, blood vessel leak, and muscle contraction that narrows the airway." The study appears in the January 2007 issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine. Caughey was investigating the ...

Heart smart: new drug improves blood flow

... blockages. What's more, as the number of free radicals increases, they also interfere with the ability of the cells lining arteries to control the contraction and dilation of the arteries," Dr. Schmidt says. "The arteries stiffen and get blocked." When a blockage occurs, the cells lining the arteries ...
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