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Compartment in Biological News

UCSF discovers new glucose-regulating protein linked with diabetes

... inside both human and mouse muscles in a special compartment that releases it upon insulin stimulation. Fat cells also form a GLUT4 compartment and take up glucose in response to insulin. In ... appropriately to the insulin and the GLUT4 compartment is abnormal. This process was thought to be ...

Yale researchers uncover secrets of salmonella's stealth attack

... membrane of the cell, called the plasma membrane, to coax the cell into taking in the pathogen, which is then encapsulated within a tiny bubble-like compartment called a vesicle. SopB's second trick helps prevent the vesicle from being sucked into the lyosome, the organelle within the cell that degrades ...

CSHL researchers pinpoint structure-building role for 2 non-coding RNAs

... the March 1st issue of Genome Research , they show that ncRNAs called MENε and MENβ organize and maintain the structure of paraspeckles, a compartment within the cell's nucleus. RNAs as structural components Unlike its counterparts in simple organisms like yeast, the nucleus in mammalian ...

Sulfurous ping-pong in the urinary tract

... the structure of ASST. This turned out to be a tantalizing task because this protein is large and present in only minute amounts in a bacterial compartment called periplasm. By growing large-scale bacterial cultures the scientists could obtain sufficient material for crystallographic studies. The ...

Cross kingdom conflicts on a beetle's back

... boring its way through the bark, a five millimeter arthropod ready to go into labor and lay a few hundred eggs. Tucked in a specialized storage compartment in its shell, the beetle has a ready supply of spores for Entomocorticium, a nourishing fungal baby food for the beetle's gestating larvae. Enter ...

Beetles get by with a little help from their friends

... and a bacterium that aids in their struggle to survive and thrive. Research in the Currie lab revealed that adult beetles have a specialized compartment in their bodies used to store two other organisms: a slow-growing beneficial fungus that serves as a food source and a bacterium that produces a ...

Scientists uncover Ebola cell-invasion strategy

... in the cell membrane). By activating the PI3 kinase pathway, they found, an Ebola virus particle tricks the cell into drawing it into a bubble-like compartment known as an endosome, which is pulled, together with the virus, into the cell. Then at a critical point the virus bursts free from the endosome and ...

Hot peppers really do bring the heat

... altering the activity of a muscle protein called SERCA. Normally, muscle contraction initiates following the release of a wave of calcium ions from a compartment called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); SERCA then actively pumps the calcium back into the SR (using ATP energy), causing muscle relaxation and ...

Dartmouth researchers identify an important gene for a healthy, nutritious plant

... help scientists develop plants that grow better and can serve as more nutritious food." During photosynthesis, chloroplasts are the subcellular compartment used by plant cells to convert light energy to sugars, fueling the plant. This process in the chloroplasts requires iron, and up to 90 percent of the ...

From humming fish to Puccini: Vocal communication evolved with ancient species

... of neurons at the same time to really be precise about their locations relative to each other," Bass said. He found that the neurons in a compartment of the hindbrain known as rhombomere 8, which are thought to control pattern generation in vocalizing vertebrates, gives rise to the circuitry of the ...

When fish talk, scientists listen

... toadfish and midshipman, the group traced the development of the connection from the animal's vocal muscles to a cluster of neurons located in a compartment between the back of its brain and the front of its spinal cord. The same part of the brain in more complex vertebrates, such as humans, has a similar ...

Genetics of ALS progression

... characterized a molecular pathway by which mutated SOD1 contributes to the accumulation of malformed proteins inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment of motor neuron cells. Beyond a certain threshold, this ER stress induces cell death. Interestingly, Dr. Ichijos team found that the inactivation ...

'Wildcat Power Cord' repairs cruciate ligament in dairy cow's knee

... of the udder (mastitis) or of the uterus (metritis), a metabolic imbalance (ketosis), ulcers and displacement of the abomasum, the fourth compartment of a ruminant's stomach. "We worked really hard for her and spent long hours at the hospital, but it was definitely worth it after seeing how well ...

Legionnaire's bacterial proteins work together to survive

... on a molecular switch, Rab1, and subverts its function. This allows the Legionella to fuse the endoplasmic reticulum and the vacuole, creating a compartment that ensures bacterial survival. They also found a second bacterial protein, LepB, that turns off the Rab1 switch once the bacteria have successfully ...

Thumb-size microsystem enables cell culture and incubation

... have remained largely unchanged. Living cells and nutrients are put into a lab dish and then are placed inside a traditional incubator, a heating compartment that is typically the size of a small refrigerator. Within the unit, the researcher must maintain a constant temperature, an environment free of ...

Spaceflight shown to alter ability of bacteria to cause disease

... to determine changes in gene and protein expression levels. The bacterial cultures were taken up into space and activated to grow in a separate compartment of the tubes called the growth chamber, said Nickerson. The bacteria didnt have access to the growth chamber until Heide pushed down on a plunger ...

Story ideas from the Journal of Lipid Research

... anymore and, instead, they activate new proteins to cope with the situation. One of the most challenged organelles in obese fat cells is a maze-like compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that makes proteins and lipid droplets and senses the amount of nutrients that enter the cell. Margaret F. ...

Features of replication suggest viruses have common themes, vulnerabilities

... surveillance and defense mechanisms of the host. " The virus has developed a very elegant strategy," says Ahlquist. "It creates for itself a new compartment for RNA synthesis, where it can collect its (constituent) components, organize successive steps of replication, and sequester these steps from other ...

Birds found to plan for the future

... mornings eight jays were given breakfast in one compartment or refused breakfast in another, before being ... consistently given a breakfast of peanuts in one compartment and dog kibble in the other. When the birds in ... they preferred to cache peanuts in the kibble compartment and vice versa ?to make sure they had an ...

Genetically altered mice no longer like cocaine

... acrylic box with three compartments ?a middle compartment and two test compartments. On the first day of ... box. "The normal mice spent more time in the compartment where they had received the cocaine injections," ... transporters showed no preference for either test compartment within the box." The researchers used the ...

A link is found between morphine addiction and the tendency to explore

... colour, feel and smell. The animal is placed in a compartment after being injected with the drug and is left to ... them with the specific characteristics of the the compartment of the cage. On a different day, the animal is ... eg, water and salt) and is placed in the other compartment of the cage. When this has been done several ...

Scientist-astronaut sends T-cells into space

... under the cosmonaut's seat in the Soyuz spacecraft. Kubik contains a compartment for weightless experiments as well as a centrifuge that can accelerate ... Thomas Reiter will simultaneously activate T-cells in the weightless compartment and in the centrifuge for four hours. "By activating the cells, he'll be ...

Motor transport in bio-nano systems

... Amsterdam have now modelled and simulated the motor traffic for different compartment geometries and filament arrangements, and have determined the optimal ... one can determine the functional dependence of the motor transport on the compartment geometry and on the arrangement of the filaments. Two particularly ...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

... governing the process. They found that proteins normally associated with the plus ends of microtubules, called CLASPs, localize to a specific compartment of the Golgi (the Trans Golgi Network) and stabilize the microtubule "seeds" at the Golgi. Golgi-originating microtubules could also be an ...

Fish can determine their social rank by observation alone, study finds

... square tank and in a new setting--a rectangular aquarium with three adjacent compartments. In each test, a bystander was placed in the middle compartment between two sets of rivals that he had never seen together--A and E (AE), and B and D (BD). At this point in the experiment, all the rivals had ...

Lost in the labyrinth

... Wingless pathway as well. Perhaps most strikingly, beta-catenin appears to make cells take decisions about their fate before they leave the stem cell compartment in the bone marrow, something so far not thought to occur. The study proves that beta-catenin plays a central role in determining whether blood ...

Researchers in Montréal and the US create model of key immune-system component

... biology." As Dr. Stuart explains, "Phagocytes are immune system cells that internalize, kill, and digest bacteria within an intracellular compartment called the phagosome, a major battleground in the host-pathogen conflict. Despite its important role in our normal immune defense, the organization ...

Cellular traffic backups implicated in skeletal malformations

... by the crusher mutation is key to transporting proteins outside of the cell. All proteins are made in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a labyrinthine compartment just outside the cell's nucleus. Proteins are then "packaged" into transport containers called vesicles, which traverse the gelatinous cytoplasm of ...

Molecular mechanism provides intra-cellular traffic signal

... the switches on. One activator protein, called TRAPP, coordinates two Ypt switches for quick entrance and subsequent exit from a central cellular compartment known as the Golgi apparatus. "The Golgi is a central station in all cells, through which all intra-cellular traffic passes," Segev explained. ...

Epstein-Barr virus might kick-start multiple sclerosis

... said Edwards. "At this point, I really believed we had a story." Finally, the team discovered that the hyper-reactive T cells belonged to the CD4 compartment of memory T cells and that these cells were strong producers of interferon-gamma, an anti-viral protein that shapes immune responses. "Animal ...

Ozone recovering, but unlikely to stabilize at pre-1980 levels, says study

... investigators thought that inactivation of BIN2, which is a kinase, freed a second protein known as BES1 from entrapment in the cytoplasm, the watery compartment surrounding a cell's nucleus, and allowed it to migrate or "shuttle" into the nucleus where it tweaked the activity of genes regulating plant growth. ...

Salk scientists untangle steroid hormone signaling in plants

... investigators thought that inactivation of BIN2, which is a kinase, freed a second protein known as BES1 from entrapment in the cytoplasm, the watery compartment surrounding a cell's nucleus, and allowed it to migrate or "shuttle" into the nucleus where it tweaked the activity of genes regulating plant growth. ...

OHSU study says stem cell 'fusion' occurs in tumors

... an enzyme from the male recipient cells Wong said, "Our paper is unique because it's the first example that cell fusion occurs in the epithelial compartment of a tumor." Other OHSU studies in recent years are giving weight to the fusion theory. A series of discoveries since 2000 by study co-author ...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

... siRNAs and also the loci that are modified by the siRNAs," Pikaard said. Pontes found the other half of the team located within a special nuclear compartment known as the nucleolus, long known to be the production center for ribosomes. "She got a brilliant signal in the nucleolus, a brilliant dot in the ...

Sleeping sickness parasite shows how cells divide their insides

... often the focus. Equally important is the way a cell prepares its internal organelles for distribution. Warren studies the Golgi complex, a membrane compartment in the cytoplasm that delivers newly-made proteins to different membranes in the cell. "Basal bodies in particular and centrosomes in general have ...

Mechanism for the captation of nutrients in plants- unknown to date

... metabolise and store them. These "swallowed-up" substances are incorporated into micro-vesicles that end up pouring their contents into an internal compartment of a vegetable cell known as the vacuola. Once inside the vacuola, the substances or nutrients are broken up, stored and metabolised. Two ...

Compounds in plastic packaging act as environmental estrogens altering breast genes

... an in vitro system of cell transformation using estrogens and their metabolites as carcinogenic agents in human breast cells. Our data show that each compartment of the breast has specific differentially expressed genes that provide a genomic signature according to the increasing maturation of the organ. ...

Shutting down the HIV assembly line

... has focused on a protein called "Gag," the major HIV structural protein. In recent years, Spearman said, it has become apparent that Gag moves to a compartment in the cell called the multivesicular body, or late endosome. In some cell types, Gag and the HIV viral envelope protein form particles in the ...

Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein

... the researchers discovered that the enzyme carboxypeptidase E, (CPE) is needed to deliver the early, or inactive, form of BDNF ?proBDNF ?to a special compartment in the neuron (nerve cell.) Once in the compartment, proBDNF is chemically converted into active mBDNF. After mBDNF is formed, it is released to the ...
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(Date:7/30/2014)... America (ESA) has elected ten new Fellows of the ... outstanding contributions to entomology in one or more of ... Fellows will be recognized during Entomology 2014 -- ESA,s ... 16-19, 2014 in Portland, Oregon. , DR. NILSA ... of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences at the University ...
(Date:7/30/2014)... DURHAM, N.C. -- A study of dominance in female baboons ... maintain close ties with mom, and to have lots of ... not by size or strength, but by the rank of ... higher-ranked her daughter will be. For this reason, dominance rank ... Females born to high-ranking mothers are guaranteed a good spot ...
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