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Cleavage in Biological News

The key to unlocking the secret of highly specific DNAzyme catalysis

... the metal-dependent conformational change and cleavage activity of a particular lead-sensitive DNAzyme. ... change took place in the DNAzyme, followed by a cleavage reaction (behavior similar to many proteins and ribozymes). In the presence of lead, however, the cleavage reaction occurred without a preceding ...

Accolade for solar-hydrogen project

... The new process of producing 'green' hydrogen uses three abundant and renewable sources sunlight, biomass and water. It combines solar driven cleavage of water and the degradation of organic compounds avoiding the use of energy derived from fossil fuels and CO2 emissions. This year's E.ON ...

The evolutionary foundation of genomic imprinting in lower vertebrates

... imprinting gene DMR, the unmethylated DMR of maternal allele could not resist methylation reprogramming and started de novo methylation at the cleavage stage, while the paternal Igf2 allele appeared to maintain its paternal methylation imprints during embryogenesis. These results suggested that the ...

New insight into Alzheimer's disease pathology

... cell membranes and chops up other proteins. Inoue et al have found a new target of gamma secretase, a protein called EphA4. The product of EphA4 cleavage drove the formation and maintenance of dendritic spines the nerve cell's receivers for transmitted signals. These results fit with a growing ...

New study reveals the protein that makes phosphate chains in yeast

... into the cell, which removes a phosphate molecule from ATP, an important energy carrier in the cell. Vtc4p uses the energy that is released by that cleavage to add the newly-acquired phosphate to a growing chain of phosphates. Since the rest of Vtc4 straddles the membrane, scientists suspect this protein ...

Weizmann Institute scientists develop a unique approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen

... a metal complex of the element ruthenium is a 'smart' complex in which the metal center and the organic part attached to it cooperate in the cleavage of the water molecule. The team found that upon mixing this complex with water the bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms break, with one ...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

... to a "search and destroy mission." Fragments of RNA known as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) prevent specific genes from being expressed by guiding cleavage of matching RNA strands. Once these RNA strands are cut into smaller pieces, they can no longer be translated into proteins. RNAi has high ...

How neuronal activity leads to Alzheimer's protein cleavage

... Amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose cleavage product, amyloid-b (Ab), builds up into fibrous plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, jumps from one specialized membrane ...

A single mechanism for hypertension, insulin resistance and immune suppression

... spark follow-up studies of this mechanism in humans. Even if future studies only support the clear linkage of hypertension to insulin receptor cleavage in the current study of SHRs, this observation should lead to many studies of how these two problems perhaps interact, wrote Bohlen in the ...

Moss protein plays role in Alzheimer's disease

... similar functions, Khandelwal said. Moonlighting protein in mammals We spent a lot of time trying to find an activity of PS to circumvent cleavage of APP, which has been very difficult, Kopan said. Importantly, the human protein acted in plant cells even if its enzymatic activity was removed by ...

How molecular muscles help cells divide

... , Sterling Professor and Chair of the Department of Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology at Yale. It constricts the cell membrane into a cleavage furrow that eventually pinches the cell in two. Living cells divide into two daughter cells to reproduce themselves. In one-celled organisms like ...

Researchers expand efforts to explore functional landscape of the human genome

... groups goal is to develop an in vivo method that utilizes single molecule sequencing to identify sites of protein-DNA interaction by differential cleavage sensitivity with ultraviolet light, dimethylsulfate and DNase I. John Greally, Ph.D.; Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y.; $1.5 ...

Brain size may depend upon how neural cells are cleaved

... because at later stages of neurogenesis, vertical cleavage gives rise to two mature neurons that are incapable of further division, while horizontal cleavage yields one neuron and one progenitor cell that ... researchers that showed that the orientation of cleavage planes in dividing neural progenitor cells in the ...

Scientists discover stage at which an embryonic cell is fated to become a stem cell

... overturn the long-held belief that cells are the same until the fourth cleavage (division) of the embryo, are reported in today's edition of Nature. ... those differences depend on the orientation and order of the very first cleavage divisions of the embryo. Professor Zernicka-Goetz said, "Our findings ...

New egg freezing technique offers hope to hundreds of women

... 263 survived (78%), 221 were fertilised using ICSI (67.9%), 116 underwent cleavage up to the second day (77.3%), 92 embryos were implanted in 37 embryo ... "We concluded that oocyte preservation decreased the proportion of cleavage and grade 1 embryos, but did not influence fertilisation rates," she said. ...

Bound for destruction: Ubiquitination protects against improper Notch signaling

... surface of a neighboring cell. This “juxtracrine?interaction causes the cleavage of an intracellular region of the Notch protein, loosing it into the ... antagonist of Notch signaling at an early stage, prior to the proteolytic cleavage of the receptor’s intracellular domain. Further investigation revealed the ...

Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

... to examine if the loss of this tRNA feature has resulted from the presence of an RNase P enzyme that is no longer capable of catalyzing abnormal cleavage at the -1 position in the tRNAHis precursor. It will also be revealing to see how different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have adapted to discriminate ...

Progress toward artificial photosynthesis?

... reaction by using a special new type of metal-free catalyst: graphitic carbon nitride. "Chemical activation of carbon dioxide, meaning its cleavage in a chemical reaction," explain chemists Goettmann, Thomas and Antonietti, " is one of the biggest challenges in synthetic chemistry." The bonds in ...

Motor protein plays key role in connecting neurons

... growing, a shorter molecule, minus the motor, is expressed. "Probably after the neuron is developed, the major work of myosin is done. There are many cleavage sites in the middle and this typically large molecule can be cut down to a small molecule that actually inhibits axon growth function," Dr. Xiong ...

Unicellular microRNA discovery

... in green algae. The researchers showed that unicellular miRNAs share functional characteristics with plants miRNAs, in so far as they can direct the cleavage of target mRNAs in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they found that miRNA expression patterns changed during gamete differentiation, suggesting a ...

T-beta-RIII joins the fight against breast cancer

... to express this protein. Further analysis revealed that the mechanism behind these protective effects of T-beta-RIII was likely to be T-beta-RIII cleavage at the cell membrane, which releases soluble T-beta-RIII that blocks TGF-beta signaling. As low levels of T-beta-RIII were found to be associated ...

What controls stickiness of 'smart' chromosomal glue

... separase snips apart cohesins, targeting a specific subunit of the cohesin complex called Rec8. Also, she said, researchers had found that Rec8 cleavage was promoted by phosphorylation -- the addition of chemical phosphate groups -- of Rec8. Researchers also knew that cohesins release chromosome ...

Newly identified mechanism helps explain why people of African descent are more vulnerable to TB

... Cyp27B1, which converts the vitamin from an inactive form to an active form, are dramatically increased. The result of this dual activation is the cleavage of a preexistent protein to a small peptide called cathelicidin, which can kill TB bacilli in the test tube. One of the interesting aspects of this ...

Anti-cancer drugs may hold promise for premature aging disorder

... group, freeing lamin A to integrate properly into the nuclear lamina. Because progerin carries the farnesylation tag but lacks the second cleavage tag, Capell speculated that progerin was becoming permanently stuck to the inner nuclear membrane. There, he suspected, it enmeshed other scaffolding ...
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