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Circular in Biological News

Photosynthesizing bacteria with a day-night cycle contain rare chromosome

... revealed more genes on the linear and the typical circular chromosomes then they'd have found with DNA ... And bacteria generally store their DNA in circular chromosomes. Linear chromosomes are generally ... Overall, Cyanothece 51142 carries one large circular chromosome and four small chromosomes called ...

Shrimps see beyond the rainbow

... that simultaneously measure four linear and two circular polarisations, enabling them to determine both ... found a related species where the males reflect circular polarisation from their bodies, and hypothesized that circular polarisation vision is used for sexual ....

Mantis shrimp vision reveals new way that animals can see

... systemsuggests that the ability to perceive circular polarized light may lend mantis shrimp a secret ... but look something like one. Marshall describes circular polarized light as a spiraling beam that spins ... show that these structures are stimulated when circular polarized light shines into them. They also offer ...

Zoologists challenge longstanding theory that 'eyespots' mimic the eyes of predators' enemies

... circular markings on creatures such as butterflies are ... moths, and fish possess two or more pairs of circular markings, often referred to as eyespots. Many ... zoologists discovered that artificial moths with circular markings survived no better than those with other ...

'A dinosaur dance floor'

... only a few feet tall. Sauropodomorph dinosaur tracks, which are more circular than the other types, were left by creatures that walked on four legs and ... 11 inches long. Seiler says the tail-drag marks are associated with these circular footprints, so they likely were made by sauropods. Anchisauripus ...

Bioclocks work by controlling chromosome coiling

... a biological clock. The chromosomes in cyanobacteria are organized in circular molecules of DNA. In their relaxed state, they form a single loop. But, ... to be local rather than the global situation in cyanobacteria. With a circular chromosome (as in cyanobacteria), twisting it at any point affects the ...

New study examines how rearing environment can alter navigation

... the University of Alberta, raised fish in either a rectangular tank, or a circular tank free of angular information. Brown and her colleagues later trained ... rearing: in the featureless test arena, fish from both rectangular and circular rearing tanks used geometry to navigate. However, when features were ...

Shape matters in the case of cobalt nanoparticles

... cubic particles in the columns decreases in a much slower fashion until the particles rearrange their magnetic moments from linear chains into small circular groups, resulting in a sudden drop in their magnetization. The team also showed that the cubes can be altered merely by observing with one of ...

Evolutionary origin of bacterial chromosomes revealed

... its own DNA into host plants. Members of the Rhizobiaceae have genetic architectures that span single chromosomes, multiple chromosomes and circular DNA molecules (plasmids) of various sizes. The scientists used the sequence information of the genomes of three types of Agrobacterium (biovars), two ...

Fossil fragments reveal 500-million-year-old monster predator

... that it is indeed related to Anomalocaris . Like Anomalocaris , Hurdia had a segmented body with a head bearing a pair of spinous claws and a circular jaw structure with many teeth. But it differs from Anomalocaris by the possession of a huge three-part carapace that projects out from the front ...

DEIMOS joins MARS and its satellite of instruments on seafloor

... security, Horne says. DEIMOS emits an acoustic signal that spreads out in a cone shape from the 16.5-inch diameter transducer to a 115-yard circular area at the surface of the ocean and has been designed to not disturb marine mammals or other animals that are being monitored. Look for more about ...

Origin of claws seen in 390-million-year-old fossil

... extinct by the middle of the Cambrian Period, 100 million years before Schinderhannes lived. The fossil's head section has large bulbous eyes, a circular mouth opening and a pair of segmented, opposable appendages with spines projecting inward along their length. The trunk section is made up of 12 ...

Scientists discover 'hot spot' for toxic HABS off Washington coastline

... NOAA Fisheries' Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle. Over the course of the five-year study, scientists noted the Juan de Fuca eddy, a circular water mass rotating approximately 30 miles off the northern coast of Washington at the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait, frequently contained ...

'Hot spot' for toxic harmful algal blooms discovered off Washington coast

... Oceanography , and a scientist at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle. Scientists noted that the Juan de Fuca eddy, a circular water mass rotating some 30 miles off the northern coast of Washington at the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait, frequently contained significant ...

Viruses, start your engines!

... by 86 nanometer capsid. The researchers found that the motor is located at the intersection of the capsid and the virus "tail" and is made of a circular array of proteins called gene product 17 (gp17). Five, two-part, gp17 proteins combine to form a pair of conjoined rings, arrayed so that their upper ...

The medium is the message: Manipulating salmonella in spaceflight curtails infectiousness

... known as microarray analysis, which allowed for a complete profile of gene expression across the entire 4.8 million DNA base pairs that make up the circular Salmonella chromosome. The 167 changes in gene levels produce a tremendous diversity of protein products, pointing to a global transformation in ...

How do bacteria swim? Brown physicists explain

... being pinballed by the water molecules surrounding it as it swims. This twin effect of hydrodynamic interaction and Brownian motion governs the circular swimming patterns of Caulobacter and many other microorganisms, the scientists found. "Random forces are always more important the smaller the ...

Luminescence shines new light on proteins

... this luminescence is a way of studying the chirality of the system, explains Prof Parker: "The optical signal we observed carries information in its circular polarisation. It's a tricky process. You have to get the light in and out of the cells but crucially, in terms of biology, it can be done using ...

Study sheds new light on dolphin coordination during predation

... line until finding concentrations of prey in this case, lanternfish. When they got to within five meters of their prey, they would pull into a tight circular formation and sequentially swim up and down vertically, in essence, doing "the wave" like fans at a sporting event, Benoit-Bird said. "They were ...

AGU journal highlights -- Oct. 16, 2008

... the migration of source locations, Ide develops a simple model of slow earthquakes. In his model, slow earthquakes are represented as shear slip on circular faults whose radius is a random variable governed by specific parameters. His results show that varying the radius of these faults could explain ...

Cyanobacterium sequenced features rare linear chromosome

... metabolism, which is the basis that allows Cyanothece 51142 to produce lactate, and other important compounds. Cyanothece 51142 has one large circular chromosome, the linear chromosome and four small plasmids. "This is the first time anything like this has been found in photosynthetic bacteria. ...

Hurricane Ike tracked by ESA's Envisat

... minimum in the well-delineated eye where the conditions are relatively calm. Around the eye of the storm, the sea surface velocities also capture the circular direction of the prevailing wind and waves, as visible in this image over Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas on 7 September. This analysis of the ...

UC Santa Barbara has key role in Large Hadron Collider project

... (Santa Barbara, Calif.) -- Earlier today, some 300 feet below the Earth's surface, in a circular tunnel so extensive that it travels from Switzerland into France and back again, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European ...

Brown tree snake could mean Guam will lose more than its birds

... of the loss of native birds on seed distribution, Rogers devised seed traps that look a bit like satellite dish receivers, with tubing bent into a circular shape and covered with fine mesh screen-door netting. She set 119 traps beneath and near Premna obtusifolia, or false elder, trees on Guam and the ...

Entomologists play matchmakers for cerambycid beetles

... to transmit pitch canker and other fungal diseases as they feed and lay eggs. The tunnels made by cerambycid larvae in host trees are roughly circular in cross section, and can be more than an inch wide. Some species bore in the sapwood and heartwood, whereas others feed in the cambium layers, ...

Nanojewels made easy

... flow, the drop gently dries on the superhydrophobic surface. This lets the nanoparticles get as close to each other as possible, swirling in a slow circular motion until all of the water evaporates. When nanoparticles of two different sizes are used in the same drop, the smaller ones move to the ...

Researchers coat titanium with polymer to improve integration of joint replacements

... clinical-grade titanium cylinders with the polymer brushes. Then engineers Petrie and Garca modified them with peptide sequences. Two-millimeter circular defects were drilled into a rat's tibia bone and the cylinders were pressed into the holes. They tested three types of coatings: uncoated titanium, ...

Court Approves Scheme of Arrangement

... does not constitute an offer or invitation to purchase securities. Terms used but not defined herein have the meanings given to them in the circular and the Prospectus. Morgan Stanley & Co International plc is acting for Shire and Shire Limited and no one else in connection with the Proposals ...

Nanorings

... the simplest form for a rigid object made of DNA, says Famulok. His team thus took on the challenge of producing DNA molecules with a smooth circular structure, free of ring deformations, twists, or knots. This was not an easy endeavor. DNA is usually found in the form of a double strand with a ...

March GEOLOGY and GSA TODAY media highlights

... lower crust has been pushed to the surface from depths of 30 kilometers. Like trees in old growth forests, the crystals were found to have roughly circular growth zones that Moser et al. were able to date and analyze with specialized ion probes. From core to rim, the zones track the formation of the ...

Breakthrough in plant research

... membranes of the guard cells that surround the stomatal pore contain several types of ion channels which control the opening and closing of the circular guard cells when the plant encounters a stressful situation, such as increased ozone in the air or drought. The regulation of stomata is an ...

Videos extract mechanical properties of liquid-gel interfaces

... solid-like properties such as elasticity and liquid-like properties such as viscosity (resistance to flow). In between a pair of centimeter-scale circular plates, the researchers deposited a gel of polydimethylsiloxane (a common material used in contact lenses and microfluidics devices). Pouring a ...

How baby fish find a home

... frame of reference to navigate. The OWNFOR system is deployed at sea and drifts while videotaping the movement of a larva placed within a clear, circular arena. It will also be possible to change their immediate environment and manipulate orientation cues, such as acoustic, chemical, or magnetic fields ...

Biophysical Society announces winners of 2008 Student Travel Awards

... Dragomir, Drexel University, Characterization of Phenylalanine Based Short Peptides at Varying pHs, Temperatures, and Concentrations via Electronic circular Dichroism and Absorption Spectroscopy. Kyle P. Eagen, Cornell University, Effect of a Mutation on the Channel-opening Equilibrium of a ...

Together we stand: bacteria organize to survive hostile zones

... space also strongly affected the cell organization in a colony, with highly disordered groups of cells found at sharp corners but not in the circular shaped microchambers. Understanding how bacteria produce biofilms is important to researchers developing better ways to combat the diseases ...

Proteins pack tighter in crowded native state

... native state becomes more compact and more ordered. The secondary structure of the folded protein increased by as much as 25 percent based on circular dichroism data. From the simulations, it is evident that these changes occur in the ends of the helices and in the core, where the peptide chain ...

Fossil record reveals elusive jellyfish more than 500 million years old

... jellyfish. The specimens are about 200 million years older than the oldest previously discovered jellyfish fossils. The fossil record is full of circular shaped blobs, some of which are jellyfish, said Paulyn Cartwright, KU assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and one of the articles ...

Chang'e-1 -- new mission to Moon lifts off

... it will explore the space weather between the Earth and the Moon. The spacecraft is large, weighing in at 2350 kg and it will operate from a low, circular lunar orbit, just 200 km above the surface of the Moon. From here, it will perform its science mission for a full year. ESA is collaborating ...

The world's oldest bacteria

... theory. It predicts that life never returnms to the same genetic level. But our findings allows us to post the question: are we dealing with a circular evolution where development, so to speak, bites its own tail if and when ancient DNA are mixed with new", says Eske Willerslev. ...
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