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Chromosome in Biological News

LSUHSC research helps link schizophrenia to specific DNA region

... schizophrenia to a specific region of DNA on chromosome 6. This is the same area where key genes for ... ten clinical sites. The work, Common variants on chromosome 6p22.1 are associated with schizophrenia, along ... the researchers found variations on chromosome 6 that appear to be associated with higher risk. ...

Dogs, humans, put heads together to find cure for brain cancer

... one copy of almost the entire length of human chromosome 22. This chromosome is made of almost 50 million base pairs of DNA ... search: we compare the affected areas of a human chromosome with related areas on dog chromosomes. This works ...

Double success for Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia scientists working on chromosome segregation

... cellular structure in powering and controlling chromosome segregation and accurate cell division, has just ... to the poles. The centromere is the area of the chromosome that directs this attachment by controlling the ... (called the kinetochore), which tether the chromosome to the spindle, and power its movement along the ...

New, less invasive genetic test greatly improves pregnancy rates in older women with poor prognosis

... CGH enables the evaluation of the entire chromosome complement. CGH was used to examine the ... invasive way of obtaining information about the chromosome content of an egg and its resulting embryo than ... that were extremely abnormal and carried multiple chromosome errors. This could explain the poor reproductive ...

Female human embryos adjust the balance of X chromosomes before implantation

... evidence that a process of inactivating the X chromosome during embryo development and implantation, which ... no Y chromosome, males have one of each. As the X chromosome is much larger then the Y chromosome, males and ... in gene expression, females need to silence one X chromosome in every cell a process known as ...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

... these forces might provide physical cues guiding chromosome movements. In this capacity, polar ejection ... of the fragment we removed and the direction the chromosome moved," Hunt said. "Not only did we observe a ... thinner than a human hair. Understanding how chromosome guidance occurs allows scientists to determine ...

Comprehensive genetic study paves way for new blood-pressure medicines

... in regulating blood pressure. The CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10q24, for instance, plays a key role in the ... the metabolism of salt. In another area on chromosome 1p36 there are genes for two peptides with ... with blood-pressure regulation, and in an area on chromosome 17q21 there is the phopholipase gene, PLCD3, ...

The genetic X-factor

... the globe has uncovered nine new genes on the X chromosome that, when knocked-out, lead to learning disabilities. The international team studied almost all X chromosome genes in 208 families with learning disabilities ... also found that approximately 1𔃀% of X chromosome genes, when knocked-out, have no apparent effect ...

The story of X -- evolution of a sex chromosome

... Berkeley -- Move over, Y chromosome it's time X got some attention. In the first evolutionary study of the chromosome associated with being female, University of ... and her colleagues show that the history of the X chromosome is every bit as interesting as the much-studied, ...

Small RNAs can play critical roles in male infertility/contraception

... into the reproductive workings of the male sex chromosome that may have significant implications for male ... The study findings indicate that the X chromosome in developing sperm cells encodes numerous tiny ... that these small RNAs have critical roles in chromosome inactivation and also in sperm formation. ...

Gene linked to lupus might explain gender difference in disease risk

... disease lupus, and its location on the X chromosome might help explain why females are 10 times more ... Academy of Sciences. Locating IRAK1 on the X chromosome also represents a breakthrough in explaining why ... out. "This first demonstration of an X chromosome gene as a disease susceptibility factor in human ...

Evolutionary origin of bacterial chromosomes revealed

... of its members have either two chromosomes or one chromosome and very large plasmids. Until this study, it was ... chromosomes to large plasmids mediates second chromosome formation." "Examination of different genome ... A. vitis S4 provide an exciting snapshot of chromosome evolution in progress," said Brad Goodner, ...

New tumor markers determine therapy intensity

... in the tumor DNA. Aberrations were seen at the chromosome level, the units in which the entire genetic information is distributed and contained. Each chromosome contains large amounts of genetic information; ... prognosis is poor. If however, one copy of chromosome 6 is missing in the tumor, the patients in the ...

Researchers take first look at the genetic dynamics of inbreeding depression

... of one of their chromosomes; only the genes of chromosome three differed between the lines. The ... Only 62 percent of these genes were located on chromosome three (the only chromosome that differed between the lines) indicating that ...

Cleft lip and palate: Genes more important than thought?

... of Bonn on the right track. A genetic variant on chromosome 8 occurs with significantly higher frequency in ... than was previously thought. The long arm of chromosome 8 The human geneticists from the University ... attention. 'This was a point on the long arm of chromosome 8, where the cleft group conspicuously often had ...

Y chromosome and surname study challenges infidelity 'myth'

... variations in spelling). Sons inherit both the Y chromosome and generally the surname from their fathers, ... daughters, who do not carry this sex-specific chromosome and usually change their surname through ... nine out of ten of these men share the same Y chromosome type. "Attenboroughs essentially form one big ...

Team finds breast cancer gene linked to disease spread

... or MTDH, is located in a small region of human chromosome 8 and appears to be crucial to cancer's spread or ... area in common -- a very small region in human chromosome 8 called 8q22. They found that this area of the chromosome is repeated many times in the genomes of ...

New genetic markers for ulcerative colitis identified, researchers report in Nature Genetics

... phospholipase A2, group IIE (PLA2G2E) genes on chromosome 1p36, and the interferon, gamma (IFNG), interleukin 26 (IL26), and interleukin 22 (IL22) genes on chromosome 12q15. RNF186 and OTUD3 are members of gene ... between ulcerative colitis and genetic markers on chromosome 7q31 within or near the laminin, beta 1 (LAMB1) ...

How chromosomes meet in the dark -- Switch that turns on X chromosome matchmaking

... togetgher of too many of too few of a particular chromosome can cause a number of medical conditions such as ... most genes are expressed from both types of each chromosome linked gene, but the most notable exception to ... will lead to XCI failure and cell death. chromosome colocalization events are common in cells. A ...

NIST guides genetic genealogy labs toward improved accuracy

... lineage can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome (Y-DNA), which, like many European surnames, ... (the base components of DNA) patterns on the Y chromosome known as short tandem repeats (STRs). Each STR is ... third 17 times and so on. If another male has a Y chromosome with a high percentage of the same STRs, it is ...

Boy or girl? It's in the father's genes

... sperm is carrying an X or Y chromosome. An X chromosome combines with the mother's X chromosome to make a baby girl (XX) and a Y chromosome will combine with the mother's to make a boy ....

Microarray analysis improves prenatal diagnosis

... should be used as a first line measure to detect chromosome abnormalities in fetuses," said Beaudet, chair of ... (a depiction of the size, shape and number of chromosome and any abnormalities in them)," said Dr. Ignatia ... was a relatively large deletion in an area of chromosome 3, but it was also present in the mother, who had ...

Newly-discovered mechanism can explain the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

... a mechanism that silences several genes in a chromosome domain. The findings, published in today's ... chromosome. However, in some domains of the chromosome the activity is shut down on one of the ... time how this silencing of several genes on a chromosome is accomplished. The research group, led by ...

Researchers discover baldness gene: 1 in 7 men at risk

... found two previously unknown genetic variants on chromosome 20 that substantially increased the risk of male ... long been aware of a genetic variant on the X chromosome that was linked to male pattern baldness, ... you have both the risk variants we discovered on chromosome 20 and the unrelated known variant on the X ...

Rong Li Lab probes mechanism of asymmetry in meiotic cell division

... division during meiosis in oocytes. By tracking chromosome movement in live mouse oocytes, the team ... mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton drives chromosome movement in mammalian meiotic oocytes," said ... and senior author on the paper. "Failure in the chromosome movement will lead to failed oocyte maturation ...

New blood test for Down syndrome

... by a trisomy -- three copies instead of two -- of chromosome 21. "We believe this is the first demonstration ... When the amounts of DNA corresponding to each chromosome were plotted on a graph, significant, above-normal peaks appeared when a chromosome was present in three copies instead of two. These ...

When cells go bad

... that losing just one telomere the end of a chromosome can lead to many abnormalities in a cell's ... pairs of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs. Each chromosome has two ends, called telomeres, which often are ... characteristics of cancer. Normally when a chromosome is damaged, the cell carrying ...

Photosynthesizing bacteria with a day-night cycle contain rare chromosome

... the DNA of blue-green algae found a linear chromosome harboring genes important for producing biofuels. ... Cyanothece 51142 carries one large circular chromosome and four small chromosomes called plasmids, and ... important finding was that the unexpected linear chromosome was more than just a pretty face. It contained ...

Cyanobacterium sequenced features rare linear chromosome

... collaborators found the presence of a rare linear chromosome in the organism's genome, a first in cyanobacteria. Further examination revealed the chromosome to be 430 kilobases long and containing a cluster ... has one large circular chromosome, the linear chromosome and four small plasmids. "This is the first ...

Aberrations in region of chromosome 1q21.1 associated with broad range of disorders in children

... aberration in a particular region of human chromosome 1q21.1 that appears to be associated with a ... an article titled, "Recurrent Rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 and Variable Pediatric Phenotypes." The ... and microduplications in a specific region of chromosome 1q21.1 in groups of patients with unexplained ...

70 years old and going strong with Down syndrome and no dementia

... with Down syndrome are born with an extra copy of chromosome 21, and these third copies of genes on chromosome 21 lead to an overproduction of certain proteins ... cases did not have three complete copies of chromosome 21 throughout all the cells in their bodies, but ...

New genes found for inflammatory bowel disease in children

... team identified two novel gene variants, one on chromosome 20 and the other on chromosome 21. They then replicated their findings with ... The researchers say that the TNFRSF6B gene on chromosome 20 is a compelling candidate, because it is ...

Duke-NIEHS team shows how DNA repairs may reshape the genome

... studied how the damage was repaired. Most of the chromosome aberrations they identified resulted from ... of the broken ends on the same chromosome. chromosome aberrations are a change in the normal chromosome complement because of deletion, duplication, or ...

Y chromosome study sheds light on Athapaskan migration to southwest US

... . It relied on a genetic analysis of the Y chromosome and so offers a window on the unique ancestral ... colleagues looked at specific regions on the Y chromosome that can vary from person to person. Tiny ... Other patterns emerged from the Y chromosome analysis. One genetic signature associated with ...

X chromosome exposed

... the fact that males have only one copy of the sex chromosome X, while females have two. The enzyme ... gender. Females have two copies of the X chromosome while males have one X and one Y. This could mean ... as many proteins from the genes carried on the X chromosome as males. However, fruit flies compensate for the ...

Mapping the genetic locus for triglycerides

... Researchers have mapped out a region on human chromosome 1 that contributes to genetically elevated blood ... heart disease. They identified a novel region on chromosome 1, 1p31-32. While this genetic locus does ... the exact same region, solidifying this part of chromosome 1 as the TG region. ...

Workman Lab characterizes novel regulator of chromosome function

... into histone proteins, a process by which all chromosome functions are controlled. The findings were ... makes a specific modification thought to alter chromosome structure. ATAC can also assist in the movement of chromosome subunits, called nucleosomes, along DNA. The ...

Recurrent genetic deletion linked to autism

... Loss of a small portion of chromosome 16, known as 16p11.2, is significantly associated ... a deletion in region 16p11.2, on the short arm of chromosome 16. None of the 372 control subjects had the same ... of cases, is a much larger duplication of part of chromosome 15, involving about a dozen genes. ...

Physician-scientists seek solutions to reproductive problems related to chromosomal variations

... as 10 years ago, all men born with an extra X chromosome -- a condition whose classic symptoms are known ... by which the presence of an additional X chromosome affects sperm production and testosterone ... the lives of individuals who have X and Y chromosome variations," says Robert Shelton, chairman of the ...

Bioclocks work by controlling chromosome coiling

... it to be a good proxy of the behavior of the chromosome itself. When the plasmid is relaxed, it is open ... on DNA structure through the coiling of the chromosome and that this, in turn, allows it to regulate all ... should be located in regions of the chromosome that are turned on by the tighter coiling in the ...
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