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Chromosomal in Biological News

Comprehensive look at rare leukemia finds relatively few genetic changes launch disease

... lacked additional DNA abnormalities. Certain chromosomal re-arrangements are known as translocations. ... cancer genes. The study also reports cryptic chromosomal translocations in 14 percent of patients in this ... focal CNAs adjacent to genes previously linked to chromosomal translocations. Those genes are MLL, MLLT4, NUP98 ...

Chromosomal problems affect nearly all human embryos

... For the first time, scientists have shown that chromosomal abnormalities are present in more than 90% of IVF ... Using new technologies that can detect chromosomal aberrations in the whole genome (all human ... than previously, and hence identify more chromosomal abnormalities than has been possible using the ...

New test can detect both genetic and chromosomal abnormalities in embryos

... One-step screening for both genetic and chromosomal abnormalities has come a stage closer as ... the inheritance of both single gene defects and chromosomal abnormalities can be detected simultaneously at ... cystic fibrosis, combined with the detection of chromosomal aneuploidy. Now that vitrification [an improved ...

New, less invasive genetic test greatly improves pregnancy rates in older women with poor prognosis

... polar bodies are not affected by the presence of chromosomal mosaicism (the presence of two populations of ... half of all the eggs produced by these women had chromosomal abnormalities, and therefore the resulting ... "But where we could find fertilised eggs free of chromosomal abnormalities, the resulting embryos were also ...

Microarray analysis improves prenatal diagnosis

... Down syndrome or other diseases associated with chromosomal abnormalities proved an effective tool in ... amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling for chromosomal abnormalities. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus ... a higher risk of having children with certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome. Some had ...

New blood test for Down syndrome

... detected Down syndrome and two other serious chromosomal defects in a small study of 18 pregnant women. If ... of miscarriage. As a result, more infants with chromosomal defects are now being born to younger women. ... to isolate enough fetal cells to test for chromosomal abnormalities. At the time, some researchers ...

Landmark studies assess risk of exposure to elevated levels of EMS confirm clear toxicity threshold

... agent capable of inducing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Although existing in vitro data ... following sets of studies: Measurement of chromosomal damage in mice Quantification of gene ... demonstrated a threshold-dose response with no chromosomal damage at EMS doses up to and including, 80 ...

The 21st century tomato

... one gene, but of many genes located together in chromosomal regions called quantitative trait loci (QTLs), ... species, Solanum pennellii . Through crosses, chromosomal segments of S. pennellii were introgressed into ... were then created that differed only in the chromosomal segment received from the wild species. In this ...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features classic approaches for analyzing chromosomes

... ) features two classic methods for chromosomal analysis. "Mapping Protein Distributions on ... easily dissected chromosomes allow mapping of chromosomal protein distributions at very high resolution. ... and can be used as a test for quickly identifying chromosomal abnormalities. This method is freely accessible ...

New study reveals for first time how BRCA1 mutations cause breast cancer

... on the chromosome. These types of large chromosomal mistakes stem directly from the tumors lack of ... harbor mutated PTEN once a complete analysis of chromosomal mutations is done. Breast cancer tumors caused ... using the same techniques we used to find gross chromosomal rearrangements in PTEN, we hope to start ...

Study finds genetic links to age of first menstrual period and menopause

... and MIT report that they have identified 10 genetic variants in two chromosomal regions associated with age at menarche (the first menstrual period), and 13 genetic variants in four chromosomal regions associated with age at natural menopause. The paper, "Genome-wide ...

Evolutionary origin of bacterial chromosomes revealed

... Va. Researchers have unveiled the evolutionary origin of the different chromosomal architectures found in three species of Agrobacterium. A comprehensive ... those of different bacteria to shed light on the origin of the different chromosomal arrangements. Most bacteria have only one chromosome. The Rhizobiaceae ...

When cells go bad

... Cells Start on the Road to Cancer Fruit flies often are used for chromosomal studies because they share 60 percent of their genes with humans, and it ... suicide measures divide multiple times, accumulating more and more chromosomal abnormalities. In humans, such cells are likely to develop into cancer ...

Largest study of its kind implicates gene abnormalities in bipolar disorder

... involved the action of the anti-manic medication lithium. However, other chromosomal locations were most strongly associated with the disorder in two ... two genes showing the strongest association among 14 disorder-associated chromosomal regions. Variation in a gene called Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) showed the ...

Evolution of fruit size in tomato

... acting together. These genes are often located in close proximity on chromosomal regions called loci, and regions with groups of genes that influence a ... different individuals. Now, with genome sequencing and genomics tools, chromosomal regions with QTLs can be mapped and cloned more easily than in the past. ...

New technique yields more detailed picture of chromatin structure

... have largely been limited to low resolution visualization of specific chromosomal proteins using light microscopy, Belmost said. This meant everyone has had ... many cases to vague, cartoon models of what are likely to be complicated chromosomal structures carrying out DNA functions such as replication and ...

Physician-scientists seek solutions to reproductive problems related to chromosomal variations

... has five scientists who are leading research into Klinefelter's and other chromosomal variations. We are very pleased to join forces with KS&A to raise ... of Directors of KS&A. "There is a high likelihood that research into these chromosomal variations will make substantial contributions to knowledge about breast ...

Research points towards early cancer detection

... can fuse together once they lose the protection of their telomeres. chromosomal fusion causes the chromosomes to disintegrate, which can result in the ... growths. The Cardiff study means there is now a system which can detect chromosomal fusions from single DNA molecules, opening up the possibility of an ...

Fox Chase researchers uncover one force behind the MYC oncogene in many cancers

... are published in the July 31 edition of the Journal of Biological Chemistry , available online now. Previously the researchers found that a chromosomal inversion a genetic misalignment, where part of the chromosome containing the DLX5 gene gets flipped around during cell division cooperates with ...

Female human embryos adjust the balance of X chromosomes before implantation

... which is only expressed on an inactive X chromosome and is transcribed (or copied) into RNA. Other probes were used to detect the sex and chromosomal status of each embryo. Ms van den Berg found that while the male embryos showed hardly any signs of XIST, the female embryos started to show ...

ESHRE launches international study of polar body screening

... sure that the analysis can be completed within a time period that allows for fresh transfer, as well as to ensure the reliable identification of the chromosomal status of an oocyte in at least 90% of polar body biopsy attempts." The two centres chosen for the pilot study have considerable experience in the ...

Scientists sequence genome of the N2-fixing, soil-living bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii

... to identify the genes involved in respiration, including those responsible for respiratory protection. Genome analysis helped pinpoint the chromosomal location of the three known oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases, as well as the genes that code for other oxygen-sensitive enzymes such as carbon-monoxide ...

Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds

... -- are thought to contribute to numerous mental and neurological disorders. "Great progress has been made in recent years in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities and genetic changes involved in mental retardation (MR)," says Professor Linda Van Aelst, Ph.D., who led the CSHL research team. "We ...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

... moved," Hunt said. "Not only did we observe a relationship, we established that polar ejection forces were in fact a direct cue that guided chromosomal movements in mitosis." To achieve this, Hunt performed "nanoscale surgery," as he calls it, taking advantage of the unprecedented precision of ...

Identification of genetic variants affecting age at menopause could help improve fertility treatment

... variants on age at menopause. The scientists intend to follow up their work with an even larger sample of menopausal women to identify more chromosomal loci. "GWAS gives you SNPs connected with menopausal age, and a possible indication of the gene involved, but not a total proof of function", ...

Yeast missing sex genes undergo unexpected sexual reproduction

... point from which we can explore the mechanisms of sexual reproduction," Reedy said. "This provides a new way to study sexual reproduction and how chromosomal abnormalities arise." Heitman said that Candida 's meiosis without meiotic genes may be what gives rise to the progeny with unusual numbers of ...

Lithium may help radiation target cancer, spare healthy tissue

... kills tumor cells by damaging their DNA, but it can also attack the DNA of healthy cells. One of the most serious types of DNA damage is the chromosomal double-stranded break (DSB), in which both strands of the double helix are severed. Even a single unrepaired DSB can be lethal to a cell. ...

Sequencing the cow's genetic code -- a new agricultural era dawns

... mechanism is more evolutionary conserved than previously thought", says Alexandre Reymond, the leader of the analysis. It appears that chromosomal rearrangements are essential for the acquisition of differences between mammals. In cattle biology, they have an influence on the genes involved in ...

Ali Shilatifard and colleagues aim to clarify the definition of 'epigenetics'

... heritable epigenetic state. The first is a signal from the environment, the second is a responding signal in the cell that specifies the affected chromosomal location, and the third is a sustaining signal that perpetuates the chromatin change in subsequent generations. "The field of 'epigenetics' has ...

The egg makes sure that sperm don't get too old

... that a fertilising sperm can get help from the egg to rejuvenate. The result is an important step towards future stem cell therapy. The risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the foetus is highly correlated to the age of the mother, but is nearly independent of the age of the father. One possible ...

Protein function and chromatin structure methods featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols

... Harbor Protocols ( http://www.cshprotocols.org/cgi/content/full/2009/3/pdb.prot5172 ). The second featured article for March looks at long-range chromosomal interactions and the proteins that mediate them. Stephen Baylin and colleagues from Johns Hopkins University ( ...

Scientists deconstruct cell division

... two daughter cells. In mitosis, the chromosomes condense and the nucleus breaks down. Fibrous structures called spindles form, which then move the chromosomal material toward opposite ends of a cell and help partition other cell contents. If something goes wrong, diseases such as cancer can arise. ...

Genome sequence shows sorghum's immense potential

... Carolina and as far away as India, Pakistan and Germanymapped and analyzed the genome of Sorghum bicolor, placing 98 percent of its genes in their chromosomal context. At 730 million bases, or letters of DNA, sorghum has a genetic code a quarter the size of the human genome. The results of the study ...

Biologists discover link between CGG repeats in DNA and neurological disorders

... the repeats got longer, however, the replication machinery got jammed and stalled in both systems. Thus, replication stalling likely accounts for the chromosomal fragility. They believe that this stalling is due to the formation of a stable, hairpin-like DNA structure formed by long CGG repeats. Abnormal ...

'Scrawny' gene keeps stem cells healthy

... and Shelley Paterno, determined that the fruit fly gene scrawny (so named because of the appearance of mutant adult flies) modifies a specific chromosomal protein, histone H2B, used by cells to package DNA into chromosomes. By controlling the proteins that wrap the genes, scrawny can silence genes that ...

NYU scientists discover dangerous new method for bacterial toxin transfer

... on the L. monocytogenes cell cultures. "The transfer is happening by stealth, silently, without anyone noticing," Dr. Novick says. The distinct chromosomal regions within Staph aureus that carry many of its toxins, the pathogenicity islands, are actually related to phages, allowing them to be easily ...

MU researcher identifies possible genetic causes of borderline personality disorder

... of genetic traits that influences the manifestation of BPD. The researchers conducted a genetic linkage analysis of the families and identified chromosomal regions that could contain genes that influence the development of BPD. Trull found the strongest evidence for a genetic influence on BPD features on ...

Building better bones and tissue in the lab

... Department of Pathology, Schulich Medicine & Dentistry, $212,039, Translational Cytogenomic Infrastructure for Detection and Characterization of chromosomal Abnormalities. Knoll is also an associate scientist at Lawson. Dr. Samuel Siu, Department of Medicine, Schulich Medicine & Dentistry, $359,419, ...

Stowers Institute's Workman Lab discovers novel histone demethylase protein complex

... in work published today in Molecular Cell . The Histone H3 protein is an important component of chromatin, the packing material wrapping up chromosomal DNA and preventing unwanted transcription of the message encoded in the DNA. Histone H3 can be altered by adding (methylating) or removing ...

Keeping chromosomes from cuddling up

... of UA's BIO5 Institute. Hartl, Sarah J. Sweeney and Peter J. Knepler, both at the UA, and Bosco published their paper, "Condensin II Resolves chromosomal Associations to Enable Anaphase I Segregation in Drosophila Male Meiosis," in the October 2008 issue of PLoS Genetics. Sweeney and Knepler were UA ...
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