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Chloride in Biological News

Plastic that grows on trees, part two

... simple sugars into HMF. The chemical, a metal chloride known as chromium chloride, converted sugar into ... of cellulose to HMF. After trying different metal chloride catalysts in the ionic solvent, they found a pair ... that worked well: A combination of copper chloride and ...

AGU journal highlights -- March 25, 2009

... formation. During the summer of 2006, nytril chloride mixing ratios of more than 1 part per billion ... modeling, the authors find that nytril chloride increases the total reactive chlorine mass by 20 ... the atmosphere of southeastern Texas. The nytril chloride caused widespread increases in ozone ...

U of Minnesota research finds most road salt is making it into the state's lakes and rivers

... Murphy and Omid Mohseni) tracked the movement of chloride applied by humans throughout the water system, ... or natural origins. They found that the chloride concentrations (salinity) in 39 metro area lakes ... The effects could be severe. Continuous levels of chloride concentration (as low as 250 mg/L, the equivalent ...

Best treatment identified to reduce deadly Staph infections

... some value, but a product made with benzethonium chloride kills common types of non-hospital or community ... and gramicidin; and those made with benzethonium chloride with tea tree and white thyme oil. The first ... groups, the study showed that the benzethonium chloride product killed the community-associated MRSA ...

AGU journal highlights -- Sept. 6, 2007

... So, knowing the abundance of atmospheric hydrogen chloride is important to monitoring ozone depletion and ... Livingston analyze data on atmospheric hydrogen chloride collected since 1971 by observers at the ... previously well established increase in hydrogen chloride abundance from 1971 to about 1993, thought to be ...

Smoke smudges Mexico City's air, chemists identify sources

... they saw an influx of aerosols that were a combination of lead, zinc and chloride mixed with soot between midnight and 10:00 am. Although the source of ... smelting, another possible source of metal aerosols, tend not to include chloride or phosphorous, both of which were mixed in with the morning metal ...

PTC124 shows activity in cystic fibrosis; Phase 2 proof-of-concept data published in Lancet

... with PTC124 results in statistically significant improvements in the chloride channel function of patients with nonsense-mutation CF. The study was ... the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, a chloride channel which is required for normal function of the lung, pancreas, ...

Fair trade

... As the researchers report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, a lanthanum chloride catalyst induces CCl4 and its reaction partner dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) to ... the desired CHCl3. In order to increase the catalyst surface, lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) was deposited onto carbon nanofiber supports. This results in a ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- May 28, 2008

... are reporting that home plumbing systems constructed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipes may be more susceptible to leaching of lead and copper ... to failure. In the new study, researchers sampled water from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), copper, lead, and other pipe material under a range of experimental ...

Biophysical Society announces 2008 International Travel Awards

... Jorge E. Sanchez, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Mexico, chloride Ions and the Gating Mechanism of CLC-2 chloride Channel. Gusztav Schay, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary, ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- June 17, 2009

... New CAS Web site on everyday chemicals Whether you want to learn more about caffeine, benzoyl peroxide (acne treatment), sodium chloride (table salt), or some other familiar chemical, CAS Common Chemistry can help. The new Web site provides non-chemists and others with useful ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- June 3, 2009

... New CAS Web site on everyday chemicals Whether you want to learn more about caffeine, benzoyl peroxide (acne treatment), sodium chloride (table salt), or some other familiar chemical, CAS Common Chemistry can help. The new Web site provides non-chemists and others with useful ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- May 20, 2009

... New CAS Web site on everyday chemicals Whether you want to learn more about caffeine, benzoyl peroxide (acne treatment), sodium chloride (table salt), or some other familiar chemical, CAS Common Chemistry can help. The new Web site provides non-chemists and others with useful ...

Progress toward artificial tissue?

... bath. The dried fibers have a porous, sponge-like structure and consist of a network of intertwined 50 nm-wide nanofibers. Soaking in a calcium chloride solution further cross-links the DNA, causing the fibers to become denser and more strongly connected. These spongy fibers resemble the collagen ...

Comprehensive genetic study paves way for new blood-pressure medicines

... another area on chromosome 1p36 there are genes for two peptides with natrium-expelling effects. A lesser-known gene in this area, CLCN6, codes for a chloride canal in the neurons, which was not previously associated with blood-pressure regulation, and in an area on chromosome 17q21 there is the ...

Large sponges may be reattached to coral reefs

... of Key Largo, Florida in 2004 and 2005 at depths of 15m and 30m. The sponges were affixed to the reef using sponge holders consisting of polyvinyl chloride piping, which was anchored in a concrete block that was set on a plastic mesh base. Though the test area endured four hurricanes during the study ...

Study suggests salt might be 'nature's antidepressant'

... in the human hankering for salt. Humans evolved from creatures that lived in salty ocean water. Once on land, the body continued to need sodium and chloride because minerals play key roles in allowing fluids to pass in and out of cells, and in helping nerve cells transfer information throughout the brain ...

New and unexpected mechanism identified how the brain responds to stress

... neurons receive different chemical signals that tell them to either switch on or switch off. The off signal or brake only works if the levels of chloride ion in the cells are maintained at a low level. This is accomplished by a protein, known as KCC2. What Bains and colleagues have shown is that ...

Calcium and vitamin D may not be the only protection against bone loss

... 171 men and women aged 50 and older were randomized to receive placebo or doses of either: potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium chloride for three months. Researchers found that subjects taking bicarbonate had significant reductions in calcium excretion, signaling a decrease in bone ...

Researchers shed new light on catalyzed reactions

... at least seven chemical steps." Ironically, he said, the reaction the team set out to analyze -- the breakdown of TCE into nontoxic ethane and chloride salts -- happens "way too fast" to be observed by the method. So, the team slowed down the reaction by using a similar molecule called DCE or ...

Saltwater olives

... can limit the development of olives, mainly because the salty water interferes with the olives' root system and causes "toxic accumulation of chloride and sodium ions on the leaves." Weisman and other researchers recently published the report of a long-term study in which they established a new ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- July 9, 2008

... removed more than 99 percent of the methyl bromide from the air. MTS ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE "The Use of Methyltricaprylylammonium chloride as a Phase Transfer Catalyst for the Destruction of methyl Bromide in Air Streams" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE ...

Taking a cue from breath fresheners, researcher develops new method for taste testing

... to cool to room temperature. Added into the solution is a small amount of a taste stimulus that will give each strip the desired taste: sodium chloride for salty, sucrose for sweet, ascorbic acid for sour, quinine for bitter, and monosodium glutamate for umami taste. Once the solution is cool, it ...

New clues to how proteins dissolve and crystallize

... to formate and acetate, two simple carboxylate groups characteristic of proteins. At that hour, all I had on hand were acetic acid and sodium chloride and potassium chloride" -- essentially, vinegar and table salt -- "but even so, the preliminary results were promising." With liquid microjet ...

New decontamination system kills anthrax rapidly without lingering effects

... oxide, hydrogen phosphate and praseodymium fluoride (La2O3, H3PO4 and PrF3, respectively) in a glass beaker with methanol (CH3OH) and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). Air drying the mixture in a fume hood caused the methanol to completely evaporate. The resultant cake was crushed into a fine powder, ...

Fighting pollution the poplar way: Trees to clean up Indiana site

... gene that encodes an enzyme capable of breaking down TCE and a variety of other environmental pollutants, including chloroform, benzene, vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride. Meilan said he believes the transgenic poplars will be able to remove the TCE from the site, named Peter's Pond, which ...

Study uncovers clues to cystic fibrosis gene dysfunction and gastrointestinal disease

... resides in the surface of cells lining the digestive system, lungs and sweat glands. In normal cells, it acts as an ion channel that transports chloride into and out of cells. It also controls the regulation of other transport pathways regulating the passage of fluid and bicarbonate across cell ...

Yale chemist receives NIH Young Investigator Award for antibody targeting

... pathogens and various types of diseased cells. For many years, physicians and scientists have used the common small molecule dinitrophenyl (DNP) chloride in immunizations in order to generate anti-DNP antibodies as a test of the status of the immune system. Spiegel is now coupling DNP with agents that ...

Scientists ramp up ability of poplar plants to disarm toxic pollutants

... of improper disposal. Both unaltered poplars and the transgenic poplar plants produce the enzymes to break down trichloroethylene, C2HCl3, into chloride ions harmless salt that the plant sheds and recombines the carbon and hydrogen with oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. The transgenic ...

Safe water: simpler method for analyzing radium in water samples cuts testing time

... and proposed it to the EPA in 2002, said Kahn. The new method developed at GTRI requires only two steps. First, hydrochloric acid and barium chloride are added to a sample of water and heated to boiling. Then concentrated sulfuric acid is added and the radium precipitate is collected, dried and ...

Plastic that grows on trees

... non-acidic catalytic system containing metal chloride catalysts in a solvent capable of dissolving ... discovered that a particular metal — chromium chloride — was by far the most effective at converting ... a mystery, Zhang said, but he suspects that metal chloride catalysts work during an atom-swapping phase that ...

MIT: Pulsing light silences overactive neurons

... for a protein that serves as a light-activated chloride pump, which helps the bacterium make energy. ... shining yellow light on them. Light activates the chloride pumps, which drive chloride ions into the neurons, lowering their voltage and ...

Johns Hopkins lab scientists tame overactive CF protein

... interferes with the body's ability to transport chloride in and out of cells. Using a tool called RNA ... VCP/pr 97 (valosin containing protein), kills a chloride transporter in the cells of the vast majority of ... protein restores the cells' ability to transport chloride in and out, researchers found. The inability to ...

Bone marrow cells can become functional gut lining cells

... by showing that they express functional chloride channels (known as CFTR, or cystic fibrosis ... The researchers used mice that do not have this chloride channel. After bone marrow transplantation from donor mice that do have the chloride channel, recipient mice had some ...

Yale researchers find environmental toxins disruptive to hearing in mammals

... of Medicine researchers have new data showing chloride ions are critical to hearing in mammals, which ... "Our data are the first to directly show that chloride ions are crucial for our exquisite sense of ... tin), because they appear to alter the balance of chloride ions in the outer hair cell." Sensitive ...

New neurons take baby steps in the adult brain

... excited by GABA -- they have greater amounts of chloride ions, making for a different chemical environment. By the time they are fully integrated, their chloride levels have dropped and are similar to other ... to change new neurons' ability to accumulate chloride ions (and thus to manipulate their response to ...

MIT chemist discovers secret behind nature's medicines

... room in the active site -- enough space for the halide, in this case a chloride ion, to casually slip inside and bind to the iron, without the grand theatrics chemists had anticipated. After the iron and the chloride bind, the protein closes down around the active site, effectively pulling ...

Fresh water affected by salt from deicing roads

... of aquatic life of 250 mg/l of chloride. In developed areas of Baltimore, chloride concentrations were already high enough to induce mortality in aquatic animals and alter wetland plant composition. During the winter months chloride in urbanized areas can increase in waterways to as high as 5 g/l which is ...

Fascinating spider silk

... high protein concentration. This solution also contains a high concentration of sodium chloride, which suppresses oligomer formation. If the sodium chloride is removed, the proteins aggregate into oligomers. In addition, the pH value also plays a crucial role in web production: within the silk gland, ...
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