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Cerebellum in Biological News

Scientists discover a molecular scaffold that guides connections between brain cells

... functions like vision and thought, the cerebellum is an easier place to start, because of its very ... Central to the wiring architecture of the cerebellum are so-called Purkinje cells, a type of neuron ... gather signals from many other neurons in the cerebellum and send signals to other parts of the body. ...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

... colleagues identified two discrete areas along the pathway that links the cerebellum to the motor cortex that together determine whether a mutation carrier ... disruption abrogated the effects of the first lesion. Normally, the cerebellum (a region that controls movement) puts the breaks on the motor cortex by ...

Response to immune protein determines pathology of multiple sclerosis

... produced by invading T cells dictates whether it's the spinal cord or cerebellum that comes under fire. The studyfrom researchers at the University of ... that are oblivious to IFNg (because they lack its receptor), mice suffer cerebellum and brain stem inflammation, but their spinal cords are spared. When IFNg ...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

... evidence that cells known as cerebellar interneurons are targeted for DNA damage and are a likely source of neurological problems in humans. The cerebellum coordinates movement and balance. The cerebellar interneurons fine tune motor control. "These data will be important for understanding the role ...

Skip this cocktail party

... is amazing considering that he did this by himself far away from Ottawa." Montie analyzed both the cerebrospinal fluid and the gray matter of the cerebellum in eleven cetaceans and one gray seal stranded near Cape Cod, Mass. His analyses include many of the chemicals that environmental watchdog groups ...

First neuroimaging study examining motor execution in children with autism reveals new insights

... This suggests children with autism have to recruit and rely on more conscious, effortful motor planning because they are not able to rely on the cerebellum to automate tasks. Researchers also examined the functional connectivity of the brain regions involved in motor planning and execution in order ...

New tumor markers determine therapy intensity

... The most common malignant brain tumor in childhood is the medulloblastoma every year, more than 100 children in Germany develop this tumor of the cerebellum and some 30-40 children die from it. The first symptoms generally appear at primary school age, but the tumor, which can already arise during ...

Researchers block damage to fetal brain following maternal alcohol consumption

... in Purkinje cells of the fetal cerebellum, while the pH changes alone produced a 24% decrease. A drop in the number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum is a measure of damage. However, when the researchers used a drug, doxapram, to block the TASK channels leading into the Purkinje cells, they ...

Origins of the brain

... in vertebrates provided a pool of proteins that were used for making different parts of the brain into the specialised regions such as cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord. Since the evolution of molecularly complex, 'big' synapses occurred before the emergence of large brains, it may be that these ...

Elephantnose fish 'see' with their chin

... image becomes increasingly 'blurred'. From the degree of fuzziness it thus calculates the distance. There is a reason for this brain power. The cerebellum of Peters' elephantnose fish is hugely enlarged. In comparison with their body length the animals have a larger brain than humans. 'They are really ...

On automatic pilot

... can perform other tasks. However, how the cerebellum performs this task is not clear. Dutch researcher ... Subsequently they investigated which parts of the cerebellum are involved in regulating the activity of a ... of inactivation of one or more parts of the cerebellum on the functioning of this muscle. Nerve ...

Stem Cells Found In Cerebellum; Possible Cell of Origin for Childhood Brain Tumors

... could arise from stem cells gone awry. The cerebellum is the brain's control center for motor ... The Duke discovery of stem cells in the cerebellum suggests a possible origin for these normal cells ... the researchers. Medulloblastomas arise in the cerebellum but their cells of origin have remained unclear. ...

Mosaic mouse technique offers a powerful new tool to study diseases and genetics

... researchers used MADM to study the development of cerebellum granule cells, which are the most abundant cells ... and humans. "Usually people think that all cerebellum granule cells are the same--they are born, and ... or nurture. Our discovery makes us feel that cerebellum wiring is more genetically determined than ...

Human cerebellum and cortex age in very different ways

... the Harvard Society of Fellows. "The fact that gene activity levels in the cerebellum remain more stable as a person ages suggests that this region of the brain ... aging were pronounced and consistent. Changes in gene expression in the cerebellum were smaller and less coordinated. The study by Plotkin, Eisen, ...

Memory loss affects more of the brain than previously thought

... with MCI showed a lower level of activation in the prefrontal cortex (during formation and retrieval), left hippocampus (during retrieval) and left cerebellum (during formation) and an increased level of activation in the posterior frontal lobes (during retrieval). "These findings suggest that we should ...

How to grow a bigger brain

... yolk reserves more efficiently. Fish reared in the river had larger brains than either group of fish reared in tanks, but the relative size of the cerebellum compared to the rest of the brain was about the same as in fish reared in tanks with stones. ...

Carnegie Mellon scientists create PNA molecule with potential to build nanodevices

... pattern of age-related change, characterized by changes in expression of hundreds of genes. In contrast, expression in one non-cortical region, the cerebellum (whose principal functions include movement), was largely unchanged with age. In addition to confirming a prediction of the free-radical theory of ...

Navigating the brain for sense of direction as paradigm for higher cognitive functions

... pattern of age-related change, characterized by changes in expression of hundreds of genes. In contrast, expression in one non-cortical region, the cerebellum (whose principal functions include movement), was largely unchanged with age. In addition to confirming a prediction of the free-radical theory of ...

Gene Expression in the Aging Brain

... pattern of age-related change, characterized by changes in expression of hundreds of genes. In contrast, expression in one non-cortical region, the cerebellum (whose principal functions include movement), was largely unchanged with age. In addition to confirming a prediction of the free-radical theory of ...

Investigating 'brain shrinkage' in alcoholics

... "The most important permanent structural change is nerve cell loss," said Harper. "Some nerve cells cannot be replaced, those in the frontal cortex, cerebellum and several regions deep in the brain." However, he added, some changes can be transient, such as the shrinkage of dendrites, those fibers that ...

Some Brain Cells Change Channels

... for the channel changing in other cells in the brain, he says, in part because the swapped channels are most common in these particular cells in the cerebellum (so-called stellate cells). But Huganir thinks the channel changing is going to be relatively common in the brain. Whether through channel ...

Gov't Creates Gene Database of Normal Human Tissues

... profiles from different organs that share similar biological functions also showed patterns of expression. For example, though the cerebrum and the cerebellum are two distinct parts of the brain, located apart from each other and doing very different jobs, their gene expression profiles reflected their ...

Some Brain Cells 'Change Channels' To Fine-tune The Message

... for the channel changing in other cells in the brain, he says, in part because the swapped channels are most common in these particular cells in the cerebellum (so-called stellate cells). But Huganir thinks the channel changing is going to be relatively common in the brain. Whether through channel ...
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