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Cellulose in Biological News

Tires made from trees -- better, cheaper, more fuel efficient

... findings about the potential of microcrystalline cellulose a product that can be made easily from almost ... to come around in a long time," Li said. cellulose fiber has been used for some time as ... renewable, OSU experts turned to microcrystalline cellulose a micrometer-sized type of ...

New technique can fast-track better ionic liquids for biomass pre-treatments

... and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between cellulose fibrils and lignin. The swelling was followed by ... switchgrass biomass into its three components - cellulose and hemicellulose sugars, plus lignin, the woody ... biomass, ionic liquid pretreated biomass produces cellulose that is efficiently hydrolyzed with commercial ...

New lab test offers better prediction of HIV microbicide safety

... against HIV; and two of the gels nonoxynol-9 and cellulose sulfate actually increased the risk of HIV ... she says, was to observe the same result with cellulose sulfate ─ a sulfated polymer that is not a ... clinical trial results in which use of cellulose sulfate was associated with an increase in HIV ...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... step for understanding how the enzymes that make cellulose and determine plant cell shape arrive at the ... David Ehrhardt, a coauthor. "To understand how cellulose might be modified and how plant development might ... understand the cellular processes that create cellulose and build cell walls." Plant cells have rigid ...

Plastic that grows on trees, part two

... research, chemists have successfully converted cellulose -- the most common plant carbohydrate -- directly ... the sugar-forming step and go straight from cellulose to HMF. This simple process generates a high yield of HMF and allows the use of raw cellulose as feed material, the researchers report in an ...

Breaking the ties that bind: New hope for biomass fuels

... identify potential weaknesses among sheets of cellulose molecules comprising lignocellulosic biomass, the ... or butanol, which show potential as biofuels. cellulose is biosynthesized in plant cells when molecules ... The plant then assembles these chains of cellulose into sheets. The sheets are held together by ...

Genome sequencing of fungus with biotechnological applications

... this fungus attacks wood in order to use the cellulose contained within. These results are important for ... fuels). Access to the sugar that forms cellulose (the real starting point for the production of ... rot, fungi with brown rot Trees are rich in cellulose and the sugar that forms part of the tree is ...

Process can cut the cost of making cellulosic biofuels

... science, uses ammonia to make the breakdown of cellulose and hemicellulose in plants 75 percent more ... than when conventional enzymes alone are used. cellulose in plants must be broken down into fermentable ... Academy of Sciences . Currently, pretreating cellulose with acid is a common way to break the material ...

Researchers find nature's shut-off switch for cellulose production

... found a mechanism that naturally shuts down cellulose production in plants, and learning how to keep ... learn to interfere with the down-regulation of cellulose synthesis, then plants may be able to produce ... the shutdown of both primary and secondary cellulose production might enhance total plant biomass. ...

Fuel from cellulose

... new method for the direct conversion of cellulose into furan-based biofuels. As they report in the ... sugars that are then fermented to give ethanol. cellulose is however the most common form of ... carbon. The problem is that the degradation of cellulose into its individual sugar components, which could ...

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute announces new genome sequencing projects

... Many microorganisms are capable of utilizing cellulose and hemicellulose as carbon and energy sources, ... depolymerizes lignin with relatively little cellulose degradation. The annotated gene set of C. ... is the only known archaeon that breaks down cellulose and, unlike most known microorganisms that carry ...

Turning fungus into fuel

... enzymes and a role model for the conversion of cellulose and hemicelluloseplant fibersinto simple sugars. ... be purified and added into an aqueous mixture of cellulose pulp and other materials to produce sugar. The ... to better understand how this organism degrades cellulose so efficiently and to understand how it produces ...

New source for biofuels discovered

... AUSTIN, TexasA newly created microbe produces cellulose that can be turned into ethanol and other ... energy source to produce and excrete sugars and cellulose Glucose, cellulose and sucrose can be continually harvested without ...

Cow stomach holds key to turning corn into biofuel

... The first version, released in 2007, cuts the cellulose into large pieces with an enzyme that came from a ... a naturally occurring fungus, takes the large cellulose pieces created by the first enzyme and breaks ... fermentable into ethanol, meaning that when the cellulose is in simple sugars, it can be fermented to make ...

For the paper trail of life on Mars or other planets, find cellulose

... of life on Mars or other planets? Finding cellulose microfibers would be the next best thing to a ... material on Earth by about 200 million years. cellulose is the tough, resilient substance best-known as ... 100 gigatons each year. Prehistoric forms of cellulose were made by cyanobacteria, the blue-green algae ...

Iowa State researcher studies how enzymes break down cellulose

... to treat leather. And because enzymes break down cellulose into simple sugars that can be fermented into ... and bacteria. And theyve got a very hard job. cellulose is tough stuff. Its in the cell walls of plants. ... that works like a little plow. It rips up one cellulose chain from ...

GEN reports on alternative feedstocks for ethanol production

... stover. The company's technology platform, based on identifying promising cellulose genes, transforming crop plants with candidate genes, and evaluating the effects on growth, yield, and cellulose hydrolysis, would be applicable to a variety of energy crops including ...

Queen's scientists discover eco-friendly wood dissolution

... Professor Robin Rogers said: "This is a very important discovery because cellulose and lignin have a wide variety of uses. cellulose can be used to make products such as paper, biofuels, cotton and linen, as ...

Center to investigate plant cells for better biomass fuels

... convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into complex structural materials like cellulose and lignin," said Cosgrove. "These make up wood, paper, cotton and many ... be looking for the "rules of assembly" for the plant wall. These include cellulose synthesis, lignocellulose assembly and the relationship between nanoscale ...

Modified plants may yield more biofuel

... Lignin, a major component of woody plant material,, is woven in with cellulose and provides plants with the strength to withstand strong gusts of wind ... harder to gain access to the cellulose. "There is lots of energy-rich cellulose locked away in wood," said John Carlson, professor of molecular genetics, ...

Experts agree: Environmental standards needed for biofuels

... United States lacks the standards to ensure that producing biofuels from cellulose won't cause environmental harm, says a distinguished group of ... disincentives for them to do so. As the technology to make biofuels from cellulose is refined and commercialized, we believe it's crucial that the industry ...

MSU technology that converts plant fibers to biofuel commercialized

... the new biofuel varieties were available commercially. Breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose (the fiber that makes plant leaves and stems rigid) into ... Spartan Corn III, contains all three enzymes necessary to convert the cellulose in plant fiber into sugars that can be made into biofuel. "We look ...

Lean and mean biomass-degrading fungus reveals capabilities for improved biofuel production

... not likely the main source of nutrients for T. reesei, upon detection of cellulose and hemicellulose it seems that the organization of these degrading genes ... genome will allow us both to better understand how this organism degrades cellulose so efficiently and to understand how it produces the required enzymes so ...

MIT professor to discuss future of biofuels

... materials to produce ethanol. To replace corn, scientists are turning to cellulose found in grasses and agricultural wastes. "The technology to produce ... that large-scale, economically feasible production of ethanol from cellulose could happen within 10 years. ...

DOE-funded research projects win 46 R&D 100 Awards for 2009

... heating and cooling efficiency in buildings. The new materials, composed of fatty-acid esters from sustainable plant and animal fats and blended with cellulose insulation, are the first phase change materials to fulfill all requirements in the U.S. flammability tests. The PCM adds thermal mass to buildings, ...

Story tips from the Departments of Energy's Oak Ridge National Lab -- March 2009

... Evans and Jonathan Mielenz of the Chemical and Biosciences divisions, respectively, are co-authors of the paper. This work improves and extends to cellulose the concept for enzymatic production of hydrogen from glucose pioneered by ORNL and funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency ...

Rot's unique wood degrading machinery to be harnessed for better biofuels production

... white-rot fungi, previously characterized by DOE JGI and FPL, which simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, brown-rot rapidly depolymerizes the cellulose in wood without removing the lignin. Up until this study, the underlying genetics and biochemical mechanisms were poorly understood. DNA sequence ...

Researchers shed new light on catalyzed reactions

... reactions in water while the reaction is happening, and some of the most interesting of these -- like the reactions needed to upgrade glycerol and cellulose into chemicals and fuels -- occur in water." ...

Oak Ridge supercomputer is the world's fastest for science

... forms of energy and understanding the impact on climate resulting from energy use. For example, INCITE projects have simulated enzymatic breakdown of cellulose to make production of biofuels commercially viable as well as coal gasification processes to help industry design near-zero-emission plants. ...

New type of fuel found in Patagonia fungus

... for the production of these gases," Gary Strobel said."There are certain enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of substrates such as cellulose to myco-diesel." Scott Strobel said his team is already screening the fungus' genome. Besides determining the complete genetic makeup of the ...

Discovering drugs, biofuels in tropical seas

... much fossil fuel as it saves while squeezing the food supply. But researchers have yet to find an enzyme that can rapidly and efficiently break down cellulose that can be relied on for industrial production of cellulosic ethanol. Haygood will lead the shipworm component of the project with the support of ...

A major prize in the chemical sciences announced by the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation

... the Dreyfus brothers were pioneers in both science and industry. Their development of the first commercially successful system for the production of cellulose acetate fiber contributed significantly to the evolution of the modern textile industry. "A key feature of the Dreyfus Prize is that the area of ...

Stevens awarded $1M for advanced biofuels research

... investigator. Other higher-education institutions selected for their projects are the University of Toledo, for its plans to simultaneously convert cellulose to sugar and fermentation to ethanol; Montana State University, which will partner with Utah State University to evaluate the oil content of algae; ...

New process derives 'green gasoline' from plant sugars

... and stalks), switchgrass and forest residue into ethanol. Dumesic now suggests that instead of converting the water-soluble sugars derived from cellulose to ethanol, it may be better to convert these sugars to gasoline, diesel and jet fuels via this process. Sugars are an attractive basis for ...

Novel fungus helps beetles to digest hard wood

... Researchers say the speedy process could potentially be harnessed to produce biofuel. "Getting rid of the lignin barrier and making the cellulose more accessible is the most expensive and environmentally unfriendly part of making ethanol from biomass," said Geib. The team's discovery, he added, ...

Story tips from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, August 2008

... determine which trees are the best candidates for biofuel. To do this, researchers will measure many traits related to ethanol production, including cellulose and lignin content, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness and cell diameter for hundreds of trees. This information is necessary to establish the best ...

Wasps and bumble bees heat up, fly faster with protein-rich food

... Celsius (3.1 degrees Fahrenheit) compared to foragers who were kept from the bait by a mesh dome. Chicken mixed with an equal volume of nutritionless cellulose got a cooler response, an elevation of just 1.1 degrees Celsius (2.0 degrees Fahrenheit), and the wasps tarried longer possibly looking for a better ...

A green solution to biofuel production

... in maize seed. By carefully designing the processing chain, from a single crop of maize we can deliver oil that can be turned into biodiesel, cellulose that can be used to make other biofuels, and fibre and protein which can be used as animal feed, as well, of course as the enzymes themselves," he ...

From Canada to the Caribbean: Tree leaves control their own temperature, Penn study reveals

... leaf are coupled to ambient air conditions. For decades, scientists studying climate change have measured the oxygen isotope ratio in tree-ring cellulose to determine the ambient temperature and relative humidity of past climates. The assumption in all of these studies was that tree leaf temperatures ...

When plants 'think' alike

... plant structures. "Findings from studies such as this really have implications regarding the potential for designing plants to better make use of cellulose in cell walls," said Gerald Berkowitz, a program director for the Physiological and Structural Systems Cluster at the National Science Foundation and ...
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