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Basal in Biological News

Sticky protein helps reinforce fragile muscle membranes

... tough layer of extracellular proteins called the basal lamina. Just as a piece of sticky tape can prevent a pin from bursting a balloon, the sturdy basal lamina reinforces muscle cell membranes and keeps ... but only if the dystroglycan "glue" affixing the basal lamina to the membrane is working. "This study ...

Neural cell transplants may help those with Parkinson's disease

... to insufficient levels of dopamine (DA) in the basal ganglia of the brain, by using primate models to ... to deliver potent trophic factors throughout the basal ganglia. Emborg and colleagues report that ... monitoring GDNF-induced functional changes in the basal ganglia using pharmacological MRI (phMRI) to ...

Sudden Oak Death pathogen is evolving, says new study that reconstructs the epidemic

... all strains were originally derived from three basal strains that were most prevalent in the samples ... then plotted out which regions were linked to the basal strains to create a history of the epidemic. Two sites emerged as the origin of the basal strains: Bean Creek in Santa Cruz County, located ...

2 new therapies show promise for cancer patients

... Research by Daniel Von Hoff, MD, FACG, focused on basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and pancreatic cancer. The ... Healthcares Clinical Research Institute. basal Cell Carcinoma In the first trial, a novel molecule, GDC-0449, shrinks tumors in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) while having limited side ...

Possible drug target found for one of the most aggressive breast cancers

... role in the development of an aggressive form of breast cancer known as basal breast cancer. "Met has already been associated with decreased ... for treatment of patients with one of the worst types of breast cancer basal breast cancer," said Dr. Daniel D. Von Hoff, Physician-in Chief of the ...

University of Florida study provides insight into evolution of first flowers

... tree Persea americana, which belongs to an older lineage of so-called basal angiosperms. "What we found is that the flower of Persea is a genetic ... (stamens), petals (typically colorful) and sepals (typically green). basal angiosperms have three: carpels, stamens and tepals, which are typically ...

February 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

... at the base of the volcanic pile is required, and lateral variations in basal friction are critical. Friction decreasing outward from the center of the ... and elongation of the respective quadrants. The most likely origin for the basal low-friction zone is in a layer of clay sediment, overpressured by pore ...

'Cross fire' from the brain makes patients tremble

... frequency in a specific core region of the brain, in the thalamus and the basal ganglia, were not completely synchronous. With a combination of ... fast and easy stimulus transmission. The signals from the thalamus and the basal ganglia are, however, transmitted to certain loop-like neuron pathways of ...

Massive dinosaur discovered in Antarctica sheds light on life, distribution of sauropodomorphs

... family Massopsondylidae, which may represent a secondary radiation of basal sauropodomorphs during the Early Jurassic. Currently, the development and ... evidence to the theory that the earliest sauropods coexisted with their basal sauropodomorph cousins, including Glacialisaurus hammeri, during the Late ...

Natural compound in broccoli could treat devastating genetic skin disorder

... proteins co-polymerize to form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton in basal keratinocytes. Since the discovery in 1991 that EBS is a keratin-based ... chemical activator that would induce the production of missing keratins in basal epidermis. There are 54 conserved keratin proteins in mammals -- meaning ...

Stem cell 'daughters' lead to breast cancer

... high numbers of luminal progenitor cells," she said. "Further, our gene expression studies have revealed that BRCA1 breast tissue and basal breast tumors are more similar to normal luminal progenitor cells than any other cell type in the breast. This places the spotlight on errant luminal ...

The right messenger for a healthy immune response

... when a low amount of Beta-Interferon has already been present before the infection occurs. Scientists call this behaviour "priming". A healthy basal level of Beta-Interferon facilitates a faster immune reaction against microbial and viral threads. Researchers from the HZI have now managed to ...

Super-sleepers could help super-sizers!

... are believed to remain deeply asleep during the entire period of dormancy. Furthermore, being cold-blooded, they don't have the need to maintain a basal level of heat production, minimizing their energy needs. ...

Researchers capture wave of brain activity linked to anticipation

... "executive" center, which plans and orchestrates complex cognitive behaviors. The premotor cortex and its associated systems, which include the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, is involved in preparing the body to act perhaps to move or to sing. "These structures are involved in both thinking ...

January GEOLOGY media highlights

... and composition of the deposits show that during flow, vertical percolation of water through the porous ice-particle-water-air mixture generated a basal zone of high internal pore pressure. This effect is particularly strong when a thick, high-density flow front forms, which races ahead of the tail, ...

AGU journal highlights -- Dec. 31, 2008

... erosion observed above the scarp. They find that the small landslides may trigger deeper landslides within the fractured layers of the scarp's basal unit, and may also indirectly influence the retreat rate of the polar scarp in various ways. Title: Seasonally active frost-dust avalanches on a ...

December 2008 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

... Sea offshore Israel, based on high resolution, three-dimensional seismic imaging. This segment is vertically divided into two sequences: basal sand-rich sequence deposited in a basin floor setting, and an overlying younger mud-rich sequence, characterized by densely spaced seabed and ...

Exercise increases brain growth factor and receptors, prevents stem cell drop in middle age

... neurotrophic factor which, in turn, promotes differentiation and survival of new brain cells in the hippocampus. Exercise did not change the basal level of serum corticosterone in middle-aged mice. This suggests that the reduction of neurogenesis during aging is not due to the drop in ...

Salk researchers successfully reprogram keratinocytes attached to a single hair

... form the uppermost layer of skin and produce keratin, a tough protein that is the primary constituent of hair, nails and skin. They originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, from where they move up through the different layers of the epidermis and are eventually shed. While scientists have ...

Revealing the evolutionary history of threatened sea turtles

... while another clade is formed by the hawksbill, loggerhead, Kemp's Ridley and Olive Ridley turtles. The leatherback is confirmed as the most basal of all the sea turtles, and the Eastern Pacific green turtlethought by some to be a separate speciesfalls within the green turtle species. The ...

Genome of simplest animal reveals ancient lineage, confounding array of complex capabilities

... of the Trichoplax adhaerens genome sequencing is so exciting that we are now culturing another 13 placozoan species in order to identify the most basal placozoan lineage and genome," said Schierwater. "Trichoplax is an ancient lineagea good representation of the ancestral genome that is shedding ...

Why a common treatment for prostate cancer ultimately fails

... cancer cells, in the prostate. He also found, surprisingly, that the receptor actually acts as a tumor suppressor in epithelial cells known as basal cells in the prostate. Then Chang's team knocked out the androgen receptor in specific sets of prostate cells and studied the results. As ...

Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is dependent on the OGF-OGFr signaling pathway

... (Aldara, R-837, S26308), the best characterized and most widely used, is highly efficacious in the treatment of external genital and anal warts, basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, Kaposi's sarcoma, chronic hepatitis C infection, and intraepithelial carcinoma. Therefore, the underlying ...

Michael J. Fox Foundation awards $2.4M for validation of therapeutic targets for Parkinson's

... small-molecule compound libraries for molecules that inhibit a certain type of brain receptor called the NR2D-containing NMDA receptor in the basal ganglia, a part of the brain involved in Parkinson's disease. His new award will allow him to take this work to the next level, testing these ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... levels and dopamine uptake were similar for mutant and wild-type transporters, the mutant transporter exhibited greater dopamine efflux under both basal and depolarized conditions, due to a greater sensitivity to intracellular sodium concentration and a higher affinity for intracellular dopamine. A ...

'Early bird' project really gets the worm

... hawks and eagles; and tropicbirds (white, swift-flying ocean birds) are not closely related to pelicans and other waterbirds. Shorebirds are not a basal evolutionary group, which refutes the widely held view that shorebirds gave rise to all modern birds. The other co-authors of this study include ...

Certain anticancer agents could be harmful to patients with heart disease

... implicated in many different types of cancer, and drugs that impede hedgehog signaling are being tested against several of these cancers, including basal cell carcinoma (a type of skin cancer), prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer and medulloblastoma (a type of brain tumor). These ...

Genetic sequencing of protein from T. rex bone confirms dinosaurs' link to birds

... better with birds than modern reptiles, such as alligators and green anole lizards." While scientists have long suspected that birds, and not more basal reptiles, are dinosaurs' closest living relatives, for years that hypothesis rested largely on morphological similarities in bird and dinosaur ...

AMNH scientists grace Science & Nature covers

... the overlap to reconstruct the family tree. But what Wheeler and colleagues found uprooted parts of the tree of life: sponges, once thought to be basal (diverging earliest from all others in the group) among animals because of their simple organization and lack of a nervous system, were found in this ...

Promising new drug targets identified for Huntington's disease

... disease. Huntington's disease is one of a number of degenerative diseases marked by build up of a malformed proteins in brain cells, mainly in the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. Normally, cells dispose of or recycle their waste material, including unwanted or misfolded proteins, through a ...

Regulation of TATA-less promoters

... colleagues reveal how histone gene expression is differentially regulated during Drosophila development. The researchers demonstrate that different basal transcription factors drive expression of the histone gene cluster, lending new insight into the regulation of metazoan transcription. "This study ...

Soft drinks alone do not affect children's weight

... consumed a similar amount of soft drinks to their leaner contemporaries. Importantly, the study used estimates of the subjects energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate to screen out those who were likely to be under-reporting their intakes. Writing in the International Journal of Food Sciences ...

Muscle mass: Scientists identify novel mode of transcriptional regulation during myogenesis

... and will be published online ahead of its September 1 print date at www.genesdev.org . For nearly 30 years, we have assumed that the basal transcription machinery, particularly the highly conserved TBP and TFIID complex, would be invariant and universal for all cell types in eukaryotes. ...

Rising skin cancer rates are more likely to affect wealthy people, says 12-year review

... showed that the three most common skin cancers - basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and ... and increased levels of malignant melanomas and basal cell carcinomas.” The team looked at data ... men were 30 per cent more likely to suffer from basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin ...

Selective marker found to indicate aggressive form of breast cancer

... could represent a selective biological marker for basal epithelial breast tumors, a highly aggressive ... cancer before it has a chance to come back." basal epithelial tumors lack important molecular ... means of determining if a breast cancer is a basal epithelial tumor ?doctors only know for certain ...

Need to pull an all-nighter?

... production in a specific region of the brain ?the basal forebrain ?is both necessary and sufficient to ... ?they found that nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain, but not in other parts of the brain, ... renders it inactive. In contrast, when the basal forebrain was infused with a nitric oxide "donor" ...

Pleasure and pain: Study shows brain's 'pleasure chemical' is involved in response to pain too

... active in areas of the brain region known as the basal ganglia, the same region where it has been ... differences emerged in specific sub-areas of the basal ganglia. For example, the more a person rated the ... dopamine release in two other areas of the basal ganglia ?the putamen and caudate nucleus ?was ...

Breast stem cells have features similar to 'basal' tumors

... markers. These characteristics also define the basal subtype of breast cancer, which is more commonly ... very early descendents, are the cells from which basal tumours arise. Dr Visvader, who led the team ... targets against breast cancer, particularly the basal subtype." Currently drugs such as Tamoxifen, the ...

Living taste cells produced outside the body

... of undifferentiated precursors known as basal cells. Understanding of the process of taste ... starting with mature taste cells, they obtained basal cells from rat taste buds and placed these cells ... and growth factors. In this environment, the basal cells divided and differentiated into functional ...
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