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Anchor in Biological News

Cell 'anchors' required to prevent muscular dystrophy

... A group of proteins called ankyrins, or anchor proteins, were first discovered in human red ... Bennett's team was exploring the function of anchor protein ankyrin-B (ankB) by knocking out gene ... they turned off ankyrin-G (ankG), a different anchor protein, in muscle cells. They found that the ...

Tracking down the cause of mad cow disease

... protein attaches to cell membranes by way of an anchor made of sugar and lipid components (a ... of a complete prion protein that includes the anchor has not yet been achieved, nor has it been ... GPI-anchored protein. The function of the GPI anchor has thus remained in the dark. A new synthetic ...

Geographic profiling applied to track hunting patterns of white sharks in South Africa

... in False Bay, South Africa. They found that sharks possess a well-defined anchor point or search base for hunting, but not where the chances of prey ... to determine the most probable area for a criminal offender's residence or anchor point, and has been used in a number of high-profile police investigations ...

Nonstick and laser-safe gold aids laser trapping of biomolecules

... more structured and less sticky than a standard glass surfaceto anchor and position individual biomolecules. Gold is an alluring possibility, ... with a polymer cushion, which eliminated undesired sticking. Now you can anchor DNA to gold and keep the rest of the gold very nonstick, Perkins says. ...

From Jack the Ripper to great white sharks

... study the hunting patterns of great white sharks. The authors observed the location of 340 shark attacks and used the data to locate the sharks' anchor point. Interestingly, the study also showed that younger sharks exhibited less focused search patterns and were less successful hunters, perhaps ...

Scientists sequence genome of the N2-fixing, soil-living bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii

... A. vinelandii belongs to the Pseudomonadaceae family. The completion of the A. vinelandii genome will serve as an essential phylogenetic anchor point for comparative genomics work with other systems. This research has also helped the Azotobacter vinelandii genome project expand its existing ...

Newly discovered snow roots are 'evolutionary phenomenon'

... and during the summer they die and decompose, which may explain how they had remained undiscovered. C. conorhiza also possesses normal roots which anchor the plant to the ground and take up nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Cornelissen's team hypothesise that the additional snow roots allow C. ...

Indigenous peoples at world summit to share climate change observations, coping techniques

... strikes and drastic weather changes, the Quezungal people have developed a farming method which involves planting crops under trees so the roots anchor the soil and reduce the loss of crops during natural disasters. East Cameroon and Congo: The Baka Pygmies of South East Cameroon and the ...

A London effort to develop point-of-care nanosensors for HIV diagnosis and monitoring

... living with the virus, two-thirds of them in sub-Saharan Africa. This development is expected to bring major improvement to UK patient and will anchor UK at the forefront of HIV research. ...

Research yields potential target for cancer, wound healing and fibrosis

... of integrins proteins on the surface of cells that serve dual roles of anchoring cells within tissues and controlling cell behavior. Integrins anchor to extracellular proteins found outside the cell and this contact regulates important cellular activities that are critical for survival, ...

Genomatix gets patent for comparative genomics method

... solved until today. The patent describes a method using a defined transcriptional start side from a well annotated genome (like human) as an anchor to identify corresponding regulatory regions in the orthologuous areas of less defined species. Results have been proven to be of extremely high ...

Toothsome research: Deducing the diet of a prehistoric hominid

... Classical analysis of the skulllarge molars and premolars with thick enamel, thick heavy jawbones, strong chewing muscles as evidenced by their anchor points on the bonepointed to a diet of small, hard seeds. The finite-element analysis threw a spanner in the works. It suggested that A. africanus s ...

Animal and biological science highlights: San Antonio Fluid Dynamics Conference, Nov. 23-25

... to Anette Hosoi, a professor of mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the clams use 10 times less energy to dig and anchor themselves into the seafloor than the best man-made techniques currently used today. To find out how the clams accomplish this, Hosoi, along with ...

Sarcospan, a little protein for a big problem

... cells might ameliorate the most severe form of muscular dystrophy. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the mutated dystrophin protein fails to anchor correctly to its membrane glycoprotein complex. And without this anchoring, muscle cells experience severe contraction-induced damage. Sarcospan is ...

Simple chemical procedure augments therapeutic potential of stem cells

... very simple," says Sarkar, who is first author on the paper. "Plus, biotin and streptavidin work with many molecules, so labs can use this universal anchor we discovered to tackle other problems. They're not limited to sticking SLeX on cells." The team worked with human cells extracted from the bone ...

Getting to the root of the matter

... of our appreciation. Beneath every towering tree, tasty crop, and dazzling ornamental lies a root system that makes it all possible. Roots provide anchor and support for plants, extract water and nutrients from soil, and reduce soil erosion. Roots also play an important role in soil carbon cycling and ...

The emerging story of plant roots

... less visible than shoots, leaves and flowers, plant roots are critical to our lives. They provide the crops we eat with water, nutrients, a firm anchor and a place to store food. Roots are complex branching organs and show a wide variation in the way they grow through the soil to exploit the ...

Scientists 'paint' viruses to track their fate in the body

... interesting for emerging diseases. In the article, Salmons and colleagues explain how they mixed purified proteins (glycosylphophatidylinositol anchor proteins) with lipid membranes to make it possible to bind these proteins to the outer skin (the lipid envelope) of viruses. Even with the new paint ...

MIT crafts bacteria-resistant films

... increases bacterial adhesion, said Krystyn Van Vliet, the Thomas Lord Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and the paper's anchor author. Van Vliet and her colleagues found the same trend in experiments with three strains of bacteria: Staphylococcus epidermidis, commonly ...

Green gel

... parallel but mutually independent (orthogonal) reactions are used to activate the two ends of the chain. These are then attached to special chemical anchor points on the polymer. The proteins thus cross-link the individual polymer chains into a three-dimensional network, forming what is known as a ...

Wind power explored off California's coast

... high of resolution.'' Deeper water means higher costs for building wind turbines. Not only would it require more materials to reach the bottom and anchor the structures, but, as the water depth increases, so does the power of the waves constantly slamming into the turbine supports, Dvorak said. ...

Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 2007

... of dental grade ceramics alters the surface structure. Nowadays, cracks begin at the interface between ceramic and remaining tooth or metallic anchor and grow to create a fatal crack and failure of the tooth, Claus said. We need to inhibit those cracks from be initiated. The proprietary technique ...

ESA honored at White House ceremony

... the presidential award. Made possible by generous support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Society established the program in 1996 to anchor its diversity initiatives. We view the ESA SEEDS Program as the jewel in our crown, said ESA President Norman Christensen. It is truly one of the ...

Scientists eye secrets of retinal regeneration

... hundreds of other discs on the rod cell's outer segment," Dr. Sung says. "All of this happens with the help of a regulating protein called the 'Smad anchor for Receptor Activation' (SARA)," she adds. "It's a central player in the disc-fusion process, allowing new growth to occur." Besides rewriting ...

Report lists top 20 most-vulnerable African carnivores

... "We now have a detailed picture of the part of telomerase that forms this anchor site, and in fact have identified a groove within the protein that is what ... the enzyme that directly extends the telomeres, Cech pointed out, so the anchor site secures the DNA molecule nearby, slightly closer to its center. ...

Groovy protein essential for promoting cancer development

... "We now have a detailed picture of the part of telomerase that forms this anchor site, and in fact have identified a groove within the protein that is what ... the enzyme that directly extends the telomeres, Cech pointed out, so the anchor site secures the DNA molecule nearby, slightly closer to its center. ...

Antibacterial coatings cut infection rates

... to microbiologists. "When bacteria sit on the surface, they first anchor themselves individually and then send out signalling molecules called ... devices. We stress covalent bonding because it is important that we anchor them very firmly to the surface, making it impossible for them to break ...

Researchers identify new catfish family

... ictalurids all have these big jaw muscles that come up over the top and anchor on top of the head" Hendrickson said. "This has a very narrow cranium and the muscles anchor to the sides of the bone instead of coming up on top. That and a number of ...

Progress toward an antitumor vaccine

... which can suppress the immune response against the true target, the glycoprotein.” This team has now found a good anchoring technique: Their anchor is a thioether (two carbon atoms coupled together through a sulfur atom). To this end, the carrier protein is first equipped with a spacer, which has ...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

... Instead, the metal nanoparticles form blobs that measure several microns in diameter (one micron is one-millionth of a meter). And these larger blobs anchor the nanoparticles in place. Stopping nanoparticles in their tracks, as this process does, could become a critical component of a bioremediation ...

New clues to how sex evolves

... meiosis in other organisms. "In most eukaryotic species -- plants, mammals, fungi, and so on - the telomeres on the ends of the chromosomes anchor to the nuclear membrane in a transient structure called a 'meiotic bouquet,'" Dernburg says. "In C. elegans it's the Pairing Centers, not telomeres, ...

Living laboratory found on shoreline statues

... positions that allow them to feed in the water column without getting battered by waves and currents. The Gormley statues not only provide a perfect anchor point but sheltered parts of the figures such as the inner thigh protect them from extreme harsh conditions. "This particular breed is a ...

With record resolution and sensitivity, tool images how life organizes in a cell membrane

... get pieces of grease stuck on them-become ''prenylated,'' in chemical parlance. The addition of a hydrophobic group to a protein forms a lipid anchor that attaches the protein to the lipid membrane. Associations of different proteins in a section of compositionally distinct fatty membrane have been ...

Weizmann Institute scientists discover a molecular security mechanism for keeping mutations in check

... strand of DNA. When the enzyme encounters DNA damage, a small molecule called ubiquitin attaches to the clamp. The ubiquitin, in this case, serves to anchor replacement DNA polymerase molecules ?careless ones ?to the clamp. p53 enters the picture when it is alerted to the damage and causes p21 to be ...

Researchers unveil strategy for creating actively-programmed anti-cancer molecules

... spread to other organs, the prevention of metastasis-the phenomenon in which cancer cells separate from a tumor mass, move through the bloodstream, anchor down in a distant tissue or organ to begin a new cancer-remains a critically important goal. The most recent figures from the Centers for Disease ...

African parasite makes component of fat differently from all other organisms

... known as the cell membrane - with different proteins that are not recognized by immune cells. These proteins are attached to the cell membrane by an anchor composed in part of a fatty acid only 14 units long - dubbed myristate -- whereas typically, in other organisms, these types of anchors contain ...

Tiny shock absorbers help bacteria stick around inside the body

... Vogel, professor in the Department of Materials at ETH Zurich. This process maintains an optimal force required to keep the finger trap-like FimH anchor from breaking loose. "This system is similar to a set of shock absorbers on your car that dampen turbulent forces caused by bumpy road ...

'Biobullets' fight harmful mussels

... aquatic pests, fouling water intake pipes at hydroelectric stations, nuclear power plants and industrial facilities. In addition, zebra mussels can anchor themselves to other mollusks, making it impossible for native species to thrive. In some case, as many as 10,000 zebra mussels have attached ...

Unraveling the viral mechanism

... viable," said Chiu. In particular, proteins protruding at one of the twelve vertices of the virus shell contain structures like tails that actually anchor the bacteriophage to the surface of the bacteria itself. The shape of these "tail" structures gives clues about how the virus or phage and cell ...
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