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Alleles in Biological News

Researchers take first look at the genetic dynamics of inbreeding depression

... are called alleles. If the maternal and paternal alleles differ, one of them usually dominates, conferring ... silenced allele is called "recessive." Some alleles are detrimental to health. Most of these are ... copies of them one from each parent. When the alleles differ, one (the dominant allele) often masks the ...

Immune genes adapt to parasites

... fungi than by that of worms. SNPs in some of these genes are known risk alleles for inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's and celiac disease. These "risky" alleles were probably maintained during evolution because they promote the kind of ...

Boy or girl? It's in the father's genes

... m allele, so his children are more likely to have the mm combination of alleles themselves. As a result, those sons may also have only sons (as shown). ... is ff, so all his children are female, they have the ff combination of alleles because their father and mother were both ff. One of the female children ...

HapMap browsing and DDDP methods for genetic analysis featured in CSH Protocols

... polymorphisms (SNPs) in the immediate vicinity, what those SNPs' alleles are, and the relative frequencies of the alleles in the population. The protocol is freely accessible on the website for ...

Mate choice in plants

... at the chromosomal region called the S locus, which contains numerous alleles that control recognition specificity. These genes code for S-locus ... on the pollen side are the SLF (S-locus, F-box) alleles. If the S alleles of the pollen match those in the stylar ECM, the pollen is rejected. If ...

Known genetic risk for Alzheimer's in whites also places blacks at risk

... on dementia. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. alleles are different variants of a gene. Everyone has the APOE gene, but what ... have: epsilon 2, epsilon 3 or epsilon 4. In addition, each person has two alleles of the gene -- one from the mother and one from the father. Having at ...

Mutation of the COX2 gene can double or treble a woman's risk of ovarian cancer

... there are two copies of the sequence and these copies are called alleles. alleles may be identical or different. Dr Pereira explained: The C and G are alleles that can be inherited, one from each parent. As everyone carries two ...

Measuring intellectual disability

... disorders, but also developmental delay, behavioral difficulties, anxiety, ADHD, and mood. Involvement among carriers of smaller (premutation) alleles can also involve developmental delays and/or autism spectrum disorders." In future studies, Dr. Hagerman and colleagues plan to explore "further ...

Penn researchers discover genetic risk factor for testicular cancer

... required in conjunction with KITLG for disease development. This remains to be determined." Only a small proportion of men who carry the high-risk alleles will develop the disease. The key now, the researchers say, is to find out what modifies the genetic risks and pushes one individual toward cancer ...

A genome may reduce your carbon footprint

... soil, temperature, and moisture conditions. It is still largely undomesticated and thus large gains might be realized through fixation of beneficial alleles in breeding populations. There are likely to be a few genes with large effects that will dramatically impact yields once incorporated into breeding ...

Cystic fibrosis testing -- next steps

... the widespread and thoughtful experience with [cystic fibrosis] mutation testing and screening continues to reveal new insights about the mutational alleles of the CFTR gene and further refinements in how best to detect them and assure appropriate quality control while doing so." ...

Complete Genomics releases proof-of-concept data for its sequencing technology for the first time

... that we did not call included long repeats and duplications, which are difficult for all short-read technologies to sequence. We were able to call alleles for both parental chromosomes for 91 percent of the genome. Sequencing this remaining fraction of DNA will require our Long Fragment Read (LFR) ...

Reverse evolution in real-time

... and diversity are generated and maintained. On the one hand, it provides evidence for evolution happening through changes in the distribution of alleles in a population (so-called standing genetic variation), from generation to generation, rather than the appearance of mutations, from one generation ...

Study identifies genetic variants giving rise to differences in metabolism

... several hundred healthy individuals and compared it to their genetic inheritance. The results suggest that most individuals carry one or more risk alleles in their genetic inheritance that may determine a certain medical phenotype, the response to a given drug treatment, or the reaction to a nutritional ...

December 2008 highlights from Biology of Reproduction

... C57BL/6J background noted by others). Appreciating the significance of these results will require defined mapping crosses to determine the C57BL/6J alleles modifying gonadal sex determination and germ cell fate. Nonetheless, the collective studies to date highlight the importance of genetic context in ...

Study a step toward disease-resistant crops, sustainability

... Mexican highlands, where it is very hot and dry," he said. "Natural adaptation to different environments has come by combining just the right sets of alleles in each variation." MAGIC is a new tool needed to find genes, Johal said. Many recent research methods used to this end involve mutagenesis, with ...

Yale researchers unravel mystery of brain aneurysms

... showed that the risk of harboring an aneurysm increased with the number of risk variants, or alleles. Individuals with the highest number of risk alleles tripled their risk of an aneurysm, researchers found. Based on this large collaborative study, a screening test may one day be able to identify ...

Interaction between gene variants may alter brain function in schizophrenia

... who also had a COMT variant previously associated with less efficient working-memory-related brain activity. "Based on the known effects of these alleles on brain biochemistry, it is likely that our results reflect cumulative impacts of the gene variants on dopamine signaling, particularly in the ...

New journal shows half-broken gene is enough to cause cancer

... Tumour suppressor genes do not necessarily require both alleles to be knocked out before disease phenotypes are expressed. Research published in BioMed Central's new open access journal PathoGenetics reveals ...

Fitness in a changing world

... these data might not be so surprising given the results from Cresko on the additional linkage blocks. Selection is likely directly on the Eda alleles when the fish is older, but may be on the other linked genomic blocks when the fish is younger, leading to a correlated change in Eda alleles. A ...

International TGen-led team finds link between brain protein and Alzheimer's disease

... in the kidneys and brain, was that those individuals with the T-allele gene were less likely to develop Alzheimer's than those with the C-allele. alleles are those genetic markers A, C, G or T that determine such inherited traits as eye and hair color, or susceptibility to disease. "We are now ...

Genes may make some people more prone to anxiety

... that breaks down dopamine, weakening its signal. (COMT stands for a catabolic enzyme named catechol-O-methyltransferase.) Scientists call its two alleles Val158 and Met158. Depending on ethnicity, more or less half the population carries one copy of each. The rest of the population is roughly divided ...

Genome communication

... the genome can interact by direct contact or through intermediaries that can be proteins or RNA sequences. The exact mechanisms of how paramutagenic alleles communicate with their homologous partners are still unknown, but the work of Chandler and others suggests that both direct contact of homologous ...

Genetic variants of USF1 are associated with the increased risk for cardiovascular disease

... at the population level, she found out that the risk variant increased the risk of sudden cardiac death of the same study subjects. Furthermore, USF1 alleles associated with incidence of CVD in Finnish population follow-up cohorts. These associations were especially prominent among women, suggesting a sex ...

Scientists unravel the genetic coding of the pea

... digital images of the plants. UTILLdb contains phenotypic as well as sequence information on mutant genes, and can be searched for TILLING alleles of genes of interest, using the BLAST tool, and for plant traits of interest, using keyword searches. By opening UTILLdb to the community, we hope ...

Team finds an economical way to boost the vitamin A content of maize

... content. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allowed them to amplify and sequence the different versions (alleles) of the genes of interest, to find the alleles that boosted levels of vitamin A precursors in the plant. This approach led to an important discovery. The team found a mutant form of an enzyme ...

New method developed to identify genetic determinants of Alzheimer's disease

... is a predisposing gene of Alzheimers disease and many other diseases. APOE has three major alleles, 2, 3 and 4. The combinations of the three common alleles result in six genotypes (22, 33, 44, 23, 34, and 24) that exist within the population. Many studies indicate that people who have the E4 allele are ...

Study suggests genetic connection between short stature and arthritis

... to know all genes responsible for height variation, so we are reassured if our baby is shorter than others because he has a collection of "short" alleles on his DNA, and not because he has something wrong, like a metabolism disorder," said Serena Sanna, co-author who worked on the paper as a ...

A new explanation for evolutionary changes in genetic sex-determination systems

... under sexually antagonistic selection. This means that some versions of the gene (alleles) are more beneficial in males than in females, while other alleles are more beneficial for females. The other gene influences the sex of the individual. Natural selection produces an association between the two ...

Study reveals possible genetic risk for fetal alcohol disorders

... Recognizing that complex behaviors are seldom, if ever, governed by a single gene, Schneider and her colleagues are also investigating other gene alleles for their potential to interact with fetal-alcohol exposure and put children at risk. "Genetics by themselves rarely tell us much, because life ...

American College of Medical Genetics responds to new FDA labeling decision for warfarin

... improve care, said Marc S. Williams, MD, FACMG, ACMG Board Member and a co-chair of the expert group on Pharmacogenetic Testing of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles for Warfarin Use. This group is completing a report on the use of pharmacogenomic testing for warfarin and is based on a rapid-ACCE (Analytic ...

Children's taste sensitivity and food choices influenced by taste gene

... children and 50% of mothers with either AP or PP alleles detected bitterness in the weakest PROP solution, ... a few individuals with two bitter-insensitive alleles (AA). Children and adults with two bitter-sensitive alleles (PP) were more sensitive to bitter taste than ...

Metal homeostasis research in plants will lead to nutrient-rich food and higher yielding crops

... and heterologous expression in yeast, Guerinot and her colleagues isolated alleles of IRT1 that no longer facilitate the accumulation of Cadmium yet retain the crucial ability to transport Iron. When the engineered IRT1 alleles are expressed in plants that no longer express a wild type copy of IRT1, ...

Genetic study of Neanderthal DNA reveals early split between humans and Neanderthals

... According to the authors, "If Neanderthal admixture did indeed occur, then [it would] manifest in our data as an abundance of low-frequency derived alleles in Europeans where the derived allele matches Neanderthal. No site in the data set appears to be of this type." However, Pritchard said, "We do ...

Affymetrix 500K array used to identify memory gene

... and Parkinson's by providing scientists with a better understanding of how memory works at the molecular level. The study entitled, "Common KIBRA alleles are associated with human memory performance," will be published in the Oct. 20, 2006 issue of Science. The research team was led by Dietrich ...

Rhesus monkeys in Nepal may provide new alternative for HIV/AIDS research

... of certain types of alleles, or pairs of genes, for genetic variations distributed across 17 chromosomes. They also looked for the presence of other alleles that are known to influence immunity and the rate of disease progression in the animals, including one that is present in Indian rhesus macaques but ...

Researchers find protein that silences genes

... when a cell divides or even into the next generation. Pikaard explains that understanding how some genes are selectively silenced and how silenced alleles can be turned on again may someday have practical benefits. For instance, tumor suppressor genes that normally help keep cells from dividing ...

Researcher gives hard thoughts on soft inheritance

... leave DNA sequence unaltered but can affect DNA by preventing the expression of genes. Richards cites a study that shows certain epigenetic alleles can be inherited that affect tumor suppressor genes. His own work in plants has often shown epigenetic information can be inherited. The Richards lab ...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

... functions if left unchecked. There is also interest in DNA methylation because understanding how some genes are selectively silenced and how silenced alleles can be turned on again may someday have practical benefits. For instance, tumor suppressor genes that normally help keep cells from dividing ...
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