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Activation in Biological News

Got zinc? New zinc research suggests novel therapeutic targets

... supports healthy immune function, but increases activation of the cells (T cells) responsible for destroying ... taken from the zinc-supplemented group had higher activation than those from the placebo group. Specifically, cell activation stimulated the zinc transporter in T cells called ...

Distinguishing single cells with nothing but light

... implications for current understandings of cell activation and development. "In the cell sensing ... a pretty hot area to figure out how to analyze activation responses on a cell-by-cell basis," says Berger. ... Berger and Smith are actively investigating activation processes more explicitly. Preliminary IRAM ...

Tiny but toxic: MBL researchers discover a mechanism of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease

... paeleii, as a model system. Llins found that activation of CK2 blocks neurotransmission at the synapse ... possibility of designing a drug to inhibit CK2 activation in Alzheimer's patients. However, a prior study by Brady found that activation of another enzyme, GSK3, in Alzheimer's also ...

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology

... misfolded proteins; however, prolonged activation of the unfolded protein response, such as in ... report suggests that "unfolded protein response activation occurs at an early stage of neurofibrillary degeneration and that the prolonged activation of the [unfolded protein response] is involved in ...

A paradigm shift in immune response regulation

... "it means, that current knowledge on NF-κB activation and the role of linear ubiquitin chains needs to ... pathway", reports Soichi Wakatsuki. Increased activation of the NF-κB pathway is known to be linked ... is a mutation in the NEMO gene, which blocks the activation of the NF-κB pathway in epidermal and ...

Cellular discovery may lead to targeted treatment for rare form of anemia

... that the UC team hypothesizes leads to abnormal activation of p53, causing premature death of red blood ... cells. Previous research has attributed p53 activation to the passive diffusion of ribosomal protein L11 ... The UC research, however, suggests that p53 activation is not due to nucleolar breakdown, but is ...

I feel your pain: Neural mechanisms of empathy

... resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activation patterns in CIP patients and controls who were ... of pain. CIP patients showed decreased fMRI activation of visual regions, a result indicative of their ... the capacity for empathy strongly predicted activation of key midline brain structures involved in ...

JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 19, 2009

... of breast cancers are associated with excessive activation of either Ras or PI3K signaling pathways, and ... in a model of breast cancer caused by excessive activation of Ras and PI3K. Further, silencing the FAK gene ... of human breast cancer cells with excessive activation of either Ras or PI3K signaling pathways. The ...

New therapeutic target identified for rheumatoid arthritis

... leukemia. Previous research has shown that activation of certain cell surface receptors called ... a subset of genes that were turned on by the activation of Toll-like receptors and inhibited by ... with the production of RBP-J decreased the activation of certain Notch target genes. "The Toll-like ...

Lung airway cells activate vitamin D and increase immune response

... properly in the human body. Until recently, this activation was thought to happen primarily in the kidneys, but a new University of Iowa study finds that the activation step can also occur in lung airway cells. The ... D locally produced in the lung airway cells to activation of two genes that help fight infection. The study ...

Caltech-led researchers find negative cues from appearance alone matter for real elections

... professor of economics at Caltech, examined brain activation in subjects looking at the faces of real ... obtained high-resolution images of brain activation as volunteers made decisions about politicians ... in the real world, were associated with greater activation in key brain areas known to be important for ...

ORNL nanotechnologies big winners in DOE call

... partner in this project. Microwave and beam activation of nanostructured catalysts. A potential ... this technology, which uses selective heating and activation of catalyst surface sites. This is expected to ... process conditions under which microwave activation of nanostructured catalysts enhance performance ...

Sensitive nanowire disease detectors made by Yale scientists

... to a report in Nano Letters . The sensors use activation of immune cells by highly specific antigens ... that the nanowires could detect generalized activation of this small number of T cells. The new report ... that work and shows the nanowires can identify activation from a single specific antigen even when there is ...

Sirtris' review of sirtuin therapeutics for diseases of aging in Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

... of clinical data supporting the role of SIRT1 activation as a viable mechanism for treating a broad range ... sirtuins with a view towards diseases where SIRT1 activation shows therapeutic promise. Such diseases of ... "We are beginning to understand more about activation of other enzymes in the sirtuin family, SIRT2-7, ...

Breast cancer treatment resistance linked to signaling pathway

... PHILADELPHIA -- activation of the Src signaling pathway may cause resistance ... identified subsets of patients with high Src activation who expressed low levels of estrogen receptor, ... biomarkers, which suggests that Src pathway activation may have played a role in treatment resistance. ...

Why some primates, but not humans, can live with immunodeficiency viruses and not progress to AIDS

... sooty mangabeys, do not exhibit aberrant immune activation and do not develop AIDS despite high levels of ... ongoing virus replication leads to unrelenting activation of the immune system in humans and macaques. ... cell stimulation may result in chronic immune activation and significant unintended damage to the immune ...

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers receive $10.8 million

... important work. Abnormally high levels of immune activation were described in the first reports of AIDS in ... hope to shed light on how HIV causes immune activation and eventually leads to immune deficiency." ... aspects of how HIV infection causes immune activation which is believed to cause CD4+ T cell depletion ...

Gene chips used to distinguish ventilator-associated pneumonia from underlying critical illness

... in the activity of 85 genes could pinpoint early activation of the immune system in response to pneumonia, ... in intensive care units that involves systemic activation of the immune system. The patterns of gene ... the body. "We found genes that control neutrophil activation were turned on, and that is consistent with ...

New approach for attacking lupus identified

... discovered that calcium specifically increases activation of STAT1 by interferons, and thus turned their ... by calcium actually regulate the strength of activation of STAT1 by the interferons, but they do not regulate the strength of activation of STAT2, said Dr. Ivashkiv. The idea was if you ...

Research reveals secrets of alcohol's effect on brain cells

... NEW YORK (Dec. 7, 2007) -- Alcohol triggers the activation of a variety of genes that can influence the ... by alcohol. The fact that alcohol triggers the activation of genes in the brain is not new and has long ... "The big question that remains is how does this activation occur" The current theory holds that, under ...

Media highlights in the Dec. 15 issue of Biophysical Journal

... Effects of Sustained Length-Dependent activation on In Situ Cross-Bridge Dynamics in Rat Hearts ... independently of Ca2+, utilizing artificial activation by ADP, a product of ATP hydrolysis, in the ... The authors carefully examined the properties of activation by simultaneously monitoring both individual ...

Glue inside the cell

... signaling pathways are responsible for the activation of lymphocytes. Krappmann and co-workers present ... complex that constitutes a crucial switch for the activation of the immune defense. Using biochemical, ... it could contribute to prevent an over-shooting activation of T cells. Unopposed lymphocyte activity is ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... resonance imaging to map the patterns of brain activation in depressed and nondepressed subjects as they ... highest ventromedial pre-frontal cortex (VMPFC) activation during reappraisal showed less activation in the amygdala, whereas ...

Diverse genetic abnormalities lead to NF-κB activation in multiple myeloma

... infections. Previous research implicates abnormal activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway as a key ... there are two separate pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB, the classical pathway and the alternative pathway. Constitutive activation of NF-κB to block apoptosis has been ...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

... tumor called paraganglioma (PGL). The gene, called hSDH5, is required for activation of an enzyme complex that plays a critical role in the chemical reactions ... complex to function normally. They also found that Sdh5 is required for activation of another protein called Sdh1 that is also part of the SDH complex. ...

Pushmi-pullyu of B-cell development discovered

... epigenetic states, modifications to existing DNA that control their activation or silencing. Dr. Hagman and his colleagues previously identified a ... complexes. When the researchers inactivated the SWI/SNF complex, that activation fell to 8-fold, suggesting that SWI/SNF helped promote B-cell development. ...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... cells, Notch is activated in one and not in the other. This differential activation of signaling results in two different kinds of cells which arise from the ... Notch signaling is required for proper development, differentiation and activation of a class of immune cells called the T-cells. T-cell function is ...

Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... in the abdominal cavity. "In conclusion, we found that L5 induced the activation of the host immune responses and protected the mice from death due to ... bacterium-infected mice by a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, L5, through activation of host immunity. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , 53. 6: ...

Huntington's disease deciphered

... JNK3, which is expressed only in neurons and, further, to show what effect activation of that enzyme has on neuron function. Huntington's disease is an adult ... This mechanism also explains the late onset of the disease, Brady said. activation of JNK3 reduces transport but does not eliminate it. Young neurons have a ...

Fatty foods -- not empty stomach -- fire up hunger hormone

... and point to a novel stomach enzyme (GOAT) responsible for the ghrelin activation process that could be targeted in future treatments for metabolic ... by Tschp and his team suggests that the fatty acids needed for ghrelin activation actually come directly from ingested dietary fats. In a departure from an ...

Activated stem cells in damaged lungs could be first step toward cancer

... of disease if we could understand which pathways regulate lung stem cell activation and then target these pharmacologically," said lead author Adam Giangreco, ... of lung cancer susceptibility, however, our observation that stem cell activation leads to clonal expansion after injury could, in the context of additional ...

Limping rat provides sciatica insights

... and asthma. "This finding suggests a possible role for immune system activation in contributing to symptoms of sciatica," said Shamji, now completing his ... were published online in the journal Spine . "If immune system activation is involved, and it turns out to be an important part of the condition, it ...

CSHL team develops mouse models of leukemia that predict response to chemotherapy

... the treatment-resistant mice, the treatment-sensitive mice showed a robust activation of the p53 network. This activation was critical for a favorable outcome: when the team knocked out p53 in the ...

Stopping autoimmunity before it strikes

... early autoimmune disease by bioluminescent imaging of NF-κB activation reveals pathology in multiple organ systems," appears in the April 2009 ... systemic autoimmunity with features of lupus, they found that NF-κB activation signals were present in affected organs several weeks before the clinical ...

Inhibiting proteins may prevent cartilage breakdown in arthritis patients

... inflammation. SAF-1 and AP-1 can partner to work together to induce activation of the MMP-1 gene causing breakdown of collagen (the proteins that ... starts to erode. Because AP-1 and SAF-1 play a significant role in the activation of the MMP-1 gene, researchers explored the site of the interaction as a ...

Researchers explore new driver of transplant rejection: Platelets

... antibodies made in reaction to the transplanted tissue sparked platelet activation and white cell recruitment. Studies on tissue from platelet-depleted mice helped confirm the importance of platelets in white cell activation and recruitment, strongly suggesting that limiting the inflammatory ...

CSHL scientists discover how 'companion' cells to sperm protect them from genetic damage

... that contain transposons, resulting in their activation. This specific activation of transposons only in the "companion" cells and not sperm cells achieves ... Companion cells generate transposon-silencing small RNAs This activation of transposons in the "companion" cell, the CSHL team shows, has a more ...

Neural mechanisms of value bias in the human visual cortex

... areas of the human visual system. Interestingly, value influenced activation of early regions of visual cortex that are thought to play a key role in ... to the observer," offers Dr. Serences. Dr. Serences also observed activation in regions of frontal and parietal cortex that were associated with ...

Rare disease provides clues about enzyme role in arrhythmias

... hallmark fatal heart disease, which typically is fatal by age 3, involves activation of the enzyme CaM kinase II. We also showed that inhibiting this enzyme ... said. "When CaM kinase II was turned on in the cellular model, the activation was responsible for the heart rhythm problems. In contrast, when we ...

Friend or foe? How the body's clot-busting system speeds up atherosclerosis

... clinically established relationships between urokinase production, activation of plasminogen, and the progression of atherosclerosis." Discovering ... of the aorta, one of the heart's major blood vessels. The presence and activation of plasminogen were required for the biochemical pathways that converged ...
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