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Actin in Biological News

Building memories with actin

... Memories aren't made of actin filaments. But their assembly is crucial for ... ( www.jcb.org ), Rex et al. reveal that LTP's actin reorganization occurs in two stages that are ... that depends on reorganization of the supporting actin cytoskeleton. However, researchers didn't know ...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... to a structure rich in actin. This specialized actin structure contains many membrane protrusions that ... "Normally, Delta is presented at the top of the actin structure," said Bellen. It is then encapsulated ... for the trafficking of Delta to the top of the actin structure," said Bellen. Notch signaling is ...

Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds

... this family are known to be key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and affect many aspects of neuronal development," Van Aelst notes. The actin cytoskeleton is the gossamer, filament-like ... dendritic spines, where it locally regulates the actin cytoskeleton -- as it turns out, in proximity to ...

Mayo Clinic researchers discover and manipulate molecular interplay that moves cancer cells

... Ph.D., has been investigating a process known as actin remodeling at the leading edge - the most forward ... tumor cells. "The events that reorganize the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge are complex a ... be turned off if cancer cells are to migrate." actin filaments help make up the cytoskeleton of cells. ...

When intestinal bacteria go surfing

... a part of the cellular supportive skeleton - the actin skeleton - is rearranged in such a manner that ... the bacteria bring the host cells to convert the actin skeleton? Researchers at the Helmholtz Centre for ... cell. EspFU then triggers the signal for local actin conversion. "It has been unclear thus far how ...

A budding role for a cellular dynamo

... to the human body. Part of the cytoskeleton, actin assembles into networks of filaments that give ... researchers raise the curtain on how this actin maintains just the right filament length to keep ... Goode, set out to discover how the length of actin fibers is controlled. By answering this question, ...

Rong Li Lab probes mechanism of asymmetry in meiotic cell division

... protein that can promote the formation of actin filaments around the chromosomes. actin filaments undergo dynamic elongation and ... After the chromosomes reach the periphery, the actin filaments orient the cell division plane so that ...

Scientists identify a molecule that coordinates the movement of cells

... give cells their shape. "Inside the cell, actin cables converge at focal adhesions at the cell's ... that ACF7 guides microtubules along a roadway of actin cables and leads them toward the focal adhesions ... focal adhesions. Hence by coupling microtubule, actin and focal adhesion dynamics within the cell, ACF7 ...

Newly defined signaling pathway could mean better biofuel sources

... that determine the cell's shape and size?" actin filaments comprise the cytoskeleton, which is the ... growth and determine the cell shape and size. actin is an abundant protein in organisms that have ... of SPIKE1's functions is to control production of actin filament, which defines localized cell regions ...

Biophysical Society announces winners of 2008 Student Travel Awards

... Residues in Thymosin 4 are Critical for actin Binding. Khajak Berberian, Cornell ... in Cell Membranes Is Modulated by Cortical actin Activity. Travis J. Gould, University of ... Brannon McCullough, Yale University, The actin Severing Protein, Cofilin, Modulates the ...

Media highlights in the Dec. 15 issue of Biophysical Journal

... by the interactions of two large proteins, actin and myosin. Our group now demonstrates that the ... the spacing between the filaments of myosin and actin as the heart fills with blood. The strength of ... other proteins are known to be associated with actin and myosin, and important for structural ...

MIT IDs proteins key to brain function

... continue extending the filopodia by lengthening actin protein filaments, or to stop growth. Without ... control the growth of filopodia by regulating actin filaments interactions with microtubules in the ... or sending signals to the filopodia through the actin filaments, Gertler said. ...

Bursts of waves drive immune system 'soldiers' toward invaders

... the cell membrane and prods it forward. But actin is not only an output of Hem-1 action; it also ... only on one side. Weiner thinks the structure of actin physically blocks Hem-1 from recruiting its ... The scientists observed the Hem-1 activation of actin assembly and actin's inhibition of Hem-1 ...

Healing wounds with lasers, vehicles that drive themselves, other cutting-edge optics

... ensemble of slender rods made out of an abundant protein called actin. The actin rods are constantly growing and shrinking inside of cells. The direction ... of optical waves to create a field around the cells in which the growing actin rods line up like a compass in the Earth's magnetic field. These optical ...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

... of the cytoskeleton and therefore the shape of a cell: microtubules, actin filaments, the cell membrane, and two protein complexes. Microtubules are ... protein complex, which in turn recruits the protein actin. Filaments of actin from this site bring the transport machinery necessary for new cell ...

Control switches found for immune cells that fight cancer, viral infection

... of cells use a primary component of their skeletal system known as an actin network. Earlier, his laboratory had probed the role of a protein called ... cells that break down bones. They showed that cortactin's effects on the actin network made it possible for the cells to form a tightly sealed bond with ...

High blood pressure in older adults traced to gene's effects in blood vessels

... said. At the heart of the vessel activities is a protein called actin within the smooth muscle cells, and its relationship to profilin 1. In the presence of too much profilin1, actin is transformed from a loosely configured protein into a more rigid fibrous ...

How molecular muscles help cells divide

... it has been known that the contractile ring is made up of muscle-like actin and myosin contractile proteins that are involved a process in some ways ... another node, where myosin motors in the contacted node pull on the actin filament, bringing the two nodes together. However, the researchers ...

Cystic fibrosis patients may breathe easier, thanks to bioengineered antimicrobials

... includes negatively charged, long-chained molecules such as mucin, DNA and actin (from dead white blood cells). It turns out most of the bodys antimicrobials, such as lysozyme, are positively charged. We found that actin and lysozyme two of the most common components in infected mucus form ...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... of the cellulose synthase complexes to their place of action. They also looked at the role in trafficking of a structural element called the actin cytoskeleton that helps move organelles and maintains the cell's shape. They found that it appears to be required for the general distribution of the ...

Lamin A/C deficiency is 'unnerving'

... nuclear positioning by causing the mislocalization of two other proteins: Nesprin-1, which spans the outer nuclear membrane and anchors nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton, and SUN2, which spans the inner nuclear membrane, linking Nesprin to lamin A/C. Although lamin A/C is ubiquitously expressed, LMNA ...

Dictyostelium cells shown to lay 'breadcrumb trail' as first step in multicellular formation

... Kriebel et al. now show that ACA is packaged into intracellular vesicles that cluster at the rear of cells in a process that is dependent on actin and microtubule networks. They also show that de novo protein synthesis is required to maintain the asymmetrical distribution of the ACA vesicles. ...

New research center at Brandeis to combine materials science and biology

... by physical experiments on a single cilium." In constructing the first carefully controllable example of active matter, the center will study actin filaments, which propel themselves through space by getting longer at one end and shorter at the other in a process called tread-milling ...

Policing cells demand ID to tell friend from foe, say University of Pennsylvania cell engineers

... by the macrophage to switch off the headlock, thus stopping engulfment and allowing self cells to coexist and move on. The team found that both actin and non-muscle myosin were involved in the attack of foreign sheep cells due to recognition of the foreign protein CD47. Human red blood cells ...

Biophysical Society announces 2008 International Travel Awards

... Sciences, Bangalore, India, Steady State Distribution and Dynamics of GPI-anchored Protein-Nanoclusters in Cell Membranes is Modulated By Cortical actin Activity. Vivian M. Gonzalez-Perez, Centro de Neurociencia de Valparaiso, Chile, Addition of a Charge to the Shaker Potassium Channel Voltage ...

Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation awards prestigious fellowships to 17 top young investigators

... Waltham, Massachusetts, is investigating how adenomatous polyposis coli, the most commonly mutated protein in colorectal cancers, nucleates actin and regulates the organization of the cellular cytoskeleton. Erik W. Debler, PhD , with his sponsor Gnter Blobel, MD, PhD, at The Rockefeller ...

A tiny pinch from a 'z-ring' helps bacteria cells divide

... mathematical equations could also be used to help understand how plant and animal cells divide, including human cells, Sun said. Human cells have an actin ring that behaves the same way as a Z-ring. It contracts during division. The mathematical formulas developed in this study could also be used in ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... two-hybrid screen revealed interactions with ezrin, radixin, and moesin of the so-called ERM family; these adaptors link membrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. The binding of the cytoplasmic domain of TLCN to ERMs was confirmed using surface plasmon resonance analysis of direct ...

Cellular message movement captured on video

... protein called paxillin (orange) in tandem with actin filaments (green). Credit: UC San Diego ... red-labeled paxillin is linked to green-labeled actin filaments, the thinnest of three types of protein ... organisms. Paxillin either slides along the actin filaments or is pulled by them. In a surprise, ...

Anthrax paralyzes immune cells with lethal toxin, UF research shows

... Immune cells rely on rod-shaped filaments called actin to propel them toward an infection. In a previous study, Southwick found that the toxin prevents actin assembly, leaving neutrophils stuck in the mud. ... never receive the green light to assemble the actin motor, Southwick's findings demonstrate. ...

New insight into machinery of immune cells' 'tentacles'

... for formation, or polymerization, of the protein actin into filaments following activation of the T cells. Such actin filament formation is crucial for the T cell to ... of the enzyme Rac was a key regulator of actin polymerization, but the downstream molecules in ...

Movement of chromosome in nucleus visualized

... of directed, long-range movement that depends on actin and myosin, the major molecular motor complex in ... found in the cytoplasm, where they interact with actin filaments to do physical work. Because these ... the movement slowed. Introducing a mutant actin that does not form filaments stopped the ...

A new focus for the mechanism of nerve growth

... advance depends on the coordinated assembly of actin filament networks. This study implicates the ... II, as a key part of the process of recycling the actin networks and ultimately sensing and directing ... microscopy, or FSM, that let them directly see actin filament assembly, disassembly and movement in ...

How nerve cells stay in shape

... synapses. A more detailed analysis of the actin cytoskeleton offered the first evidence for a ... explanation for the observed synapse changes. actin is a central protein in the cell's skeleton, ... nerve cells have significantly fewer actin fibres than normal synapses. The mRNA ...

Telling axons where to go - and grow

... degradation pathway in the regulation of local actin dynamics in neurons. The authors are able to ... neurons. LIMK1 regulates the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton primarily via phosphorylation of the actin depolymerization factors ADF/cofilin, with ...

Image of myosin-actin interaction revealed in cover story of Molecular Cell

... the 3D representation of myosin V "walking" along actin filament, a key protein involved in motility and ... microscopy to take 3D snapshots of myosin V and actin interacting, researchers were able to see myosin V moving along the actin substrate in a "natural state." Previous 2D ...

Einstein scientists discover how protein crucial for motion is synthesised at the right place in the cell

... The team's previous work showed how newly formed actin messenger RNA molecules find their way to the ... periphery, the messenger RNA is translated into actin protein responsible for cell motility. This ... key role for ZBP1: Not only does ZBP1 bind to actin messenger RNA and guide it to the cell's ...

Researchers learn how blood vessel cells cope with their pressure-packed job

... that gives muscle its ability to contract. actin also gives virtually all cells their ability to ... to the direction of stretch. "This orientation of actin fibers can be thought of as a feedback control in ... only 1 percent of their length contained actin fibers with no directional orientation. However, ...

Spiders help scientists discover how muscles relax

... of another muscle protein, actin. When the actin and myosin filaments slide along one another, the ... from the thick filament to connect with and move actin filaments during contraction of a muscle. ... molecule are inhibited from interacting with actin by interacting with each other instead. When ...
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