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Hydrogen in Biological Dictionary

Uracil

... ... Uracil pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding. Uracil is the hydrogen bond acceptor and can form two hydrogen bonds. Uracil can also bind with a ribose. ...

Hydrogen bond

... A hydrogen bond is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, like nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine . The hydrogen is covalently bonded to another electronegative ...

Double helix

... double -stranded DNA in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration, with the two ... shape because of the difference in the number of hydrogen ... This section explains that the Double ... ... Within the DNA double helix , A forms 2 hydrogen bonds with T on the opposite ... Example of dA-dT ...

Catalase

... it functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Catalase has one ... cells that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen Catalase is ... is found in animal and ... Catalase also uses hydrogen Peroxide to oxidise toxins including Phenols, ...

Beta sheet

... beta strands connected laterally by five or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated ... a closed structure in which the first strand is hydrogen bonded to the last. Beta -strands in beta ... sheet . A b sheet consists of two or more hydrogen bonded b strands. ... Beta barrel. A b barrel ...

Alpha helix

... in which every backbone N-H group donates a hydrogen bond to the ... The alpha helix ... a spiral ... The alpha helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen of ... ... , the ith residue's carbonyl oxygen forms a hydrogen bond ... ... either in the form of an alpha ...

Acids

... when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water, i.e. a ... suggested that acids are compounds that contain hydrogen and can ... What are acids , a brief ... general, when certain acids react with metals, hydrogen gas is released. ... Trans fatty acids - ...

Storage material

... hydrogen- storage devices. ... proposed a new material with the hydrogen storage efficiency of 7.6 percent ... Shop for Wholesale Storage ... materials . ... demonstrate reversible generation of a high capacity hydrogen storage material ... Archival Supplies, Products for preservation ...

Secondary Structure

... structure is provided by secondary structural elements which are hydrogen bonds within ... This 1996-1997 Protein Secondary Structure ... ... With protein secondary structure , regularly spaced intrachain hydrogen bonding is seen. ... Secondary structure elements are observed to ...

Hydroxyl radical

... in chemistry describes a molecule consisting of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom joined by a covalent bond. The neutral form is known as a hydroxyl ... chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom connected by a covalent bond (single bond). The neutral form is a ...

Wobble base pair

... ... of tRNA modification on wobble base pair formation found that a productive ... In such a wobble base pair , G makes two hydrogen bonds with U in a geometry ... amine of G, when presented on the minor groove surface by the wobble base pair ... ...

Uric acid

... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. uric acid n. A semisolid compound, C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3 , that is a nitrogenous end product of protein and purine ...

Replication fork

... The replication fork is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication . It is created by helicases, which break the hydrogen bonds holding the two DNA strands together. The resulting structure has ... It has been suggested that Replication fork be merged into ...

Reducing agent

... Agent Pairs. Metals act as reducing agents in their chemical reactions. ... Defines oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen, hydrogen or electron transfer. ... A reducing agent reduces something else. ... The Reduction Agents are an oddity in today's world of pop music: ...

Phycology

... A Whittick from Wiley Blackwell ISBN-10: Run a search on Phycology at Wikipedia. Search Wikimedia Commons ... History of phycology . Biological hydrogen production. Algae fuel. Algal nutrient solutions ... 5th European Phycological Congress. Ç ÅëëçíéêÞ ÖõêïëïãéêÞ ... What is the ALGAE? ALGAE and ...

Phospholipid bilayer

... derivatives ... Water is highly organized by contact with the double layer of membrane lipids. Hydrophilic phosphates of the phospholipids hydrogen bond into the water surface layers. Phospholipid bilayers made from monolayers on patch-clamp ... a reasonable model of a phospholipid ...

Phosphate group

... A phosphate , an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... the group donates the two hydrogen atoms and ionizes as a phosphate group with a ... Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level ...

Oxidation

... view of oxidation and reduction is that of adding or removing oxygen . An alternative approach is to describe oxidation as the loss of hydrogen and ... A classic demonstration of oxidation -reduction reactions involves placing a ... Reduction occurs when the oxidation number of an atom ...

Oscillatoria

... ... Oscillatoria articulata. Oscillatoria bornetii. Oscillatoria ... Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium) thiebautii (Cyanophyta) in ... hydrogen production and nitrogen fixation by Oscillatoria thiebautii during in situ incubations. ... Antarctic Cyanobacteria - taxa and samples from the ...

Nitrogenous base

... to ... The system of a base covalently bound to the 1' carbon of a ribose or ... Base pairing in DNA Double Helix (shows specific hydrogen bonds) v • d • e ... ... deoxyribose (a five carbon sugar), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base . There are four different nitrogenous ...

NADPH

... reductase ( NADPH ) ... (R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+ = (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl -CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H ... ... which acquires a hydrogen ion to form NADPH , which is a storage form of energy ... transfers (as single nucleotide ATP, GTP, and double nucleotide NADH and NADPH ) ... ...

Molecule

... FOR PIT CREW SAFETY ... In chemistry, a molecule is an entity comprising two or more atoms held together ... In a molecule of methane, each hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with ... Information about molecule in the free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... coenzyme - a ...

Melting temperature

... melting , is the process by which double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid unwinds and separates into single-stranded strands through the breaking of hydrogen bonding between the bases. Both terms are used to refer to the process as ... Melting point depression is a term referring to the phenomenon ...

Lysosome

... on its needs. ... A primary lysosome contains many enzymes (collectively ... The membrane of the lysosome has intergral proteins called hydrogen ion ATPases (proton pumps) ... ... lysosomal hydrolases are known and lysosomes have a great variety of morphologies and functions. ... ...

Lipids

... energy and provide essential lipid nutrients. ... Online Medical Dictionary and glossary with medical definitions ... Lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but have far less oxygen ... Organic molecules making up triglycerides, steroids, and waxes. Developed by Baylor College of ...

Leading strand

... The replication fork is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication. It is created by helicases, which break the hydrogen bonds holding the two DNA strands together. The resulting structure has ... ... is located at the top of the leading strand , and the ...

Lagging strand

... The replication fork is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication. It is created by helicases, which break the hydrogen bonds holding the two DNA strands together. The resulting structure has ... An Okazaki fragment is a relatively short fragment of DNA created ...

Hydrolysis

... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions, which may go on to participate in further reactions. It is the type of reaction that is used to break ... hydrolysis n. ...

Helix-turn-helix

... the alpha helix (α- helix ) is a right- or left-handed coiled conformation, resembling a spring, in which every backbone N-H group donates a hydrogen bond to the ... ... helix - turn - helix (HTH) structural motif, please input the PDB ID of a structure to be tested. ... the ...

Fatty acids

... Important constituents of lipids, fatty acid molecules characteristically consist of an even number of carbon atoms linked in a chain lined with hydrogen atoms that ... Biochemistry and benefits of essential fatty acids ... ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS IN CELL MEMBRANES. FATS FOR IMMUNITY. FATS ...

FADH2

... Citric Acid Cycle ==> 2Acetyl-CoA ---> 2 CO2 + 3 NADH + 1 FADH2 + 1 GTP per glucose ... 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 6 H+ + 2 FADH2 + 2ATP ... Two hydrogen atoms are transferred to FAD producing one molecule of FADH2 . ... 2 FADH2 from citric acid cycle 4. Total 38 ... ... of the energy is in ...

Endosymbiosis

... and chasmolithic algae ... The Serial Endosymbiosis Theory of Eukaryotic Evolution. Protozoa - Consortia & Serial Endosymbiosis . The hydrogen Hypothesis (for the first eukaryote) ... Three biologists stand out in the history of the theory of endosymbiosis —the relationship in which a ...

Disulfide bridge

... bonds (the orange residues) are within ... A disulfide bridge is formed when a sulfur atom from one Cysteine forms a single ... Unlike a hydrogen Bond, a disulfide bridge is not shown in the current ... If there is an equivalent disulfide bridge in any of the templates aligned with .....

Deoxyribose

... students ... of the sugar deoxyribose (a 5 carbon sugar) ... In the case of deoxyribose , a hydroxyl group has been replaced with a single hydrogen atom. Deoxyribose has the chemical formula C5H10O4. ... A fairly detailed look at the structure of DNA ... If you just had ribose or ...

Cytosine

... heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached . The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three hydrogen bonds ... cytosine ( ) n. ( Abbr. C ) A pyrimidine base, C 4 H 5 N 3 O, that is the constituent of DNA and RNA involved in base pairing ...

Cristae

... basic botanical terms, C. ... CRISTAE ... The walls of the cristae are the site of the cell's energy production (it is ... They carry the hydrogen ions to the inner mitochondrial membrane ( cristae ) ... Importance of the cristae ... hummingbird has many cristae in each mitochondrion, ... ...

Chemiosmosis

... is the diffusion of ions across a selectively-permeable membrane. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration. chemiosmosis A process in which a proton gradient across a mitochondrial membrane and ATP ...

Calcareous algae

... & Health. Filters/ Filtration Systems ... Algae Fuels. CO2 Sequestration. Energy Conservation. Energy Efficiency. Energy from Waste ... hydrogen from algae . Hydrogenase. Jet Propellant-8 (JP-8) Lipids ... A list of edited books by Robert Riding ... Calcareous algae . ... Cambrian ...

Bivalent

... two fuel types. Examples are petroleum LPG which are widely offered in the European passenger vehicle aftermarket. Bivalent engines can also use hydrogen as demonstrated by the ... Bivalent (chemistry), a molecule formed from two or more atoms bound together as ... Bivalent ...

Bases

... In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of, by chemists, as an aqueous substance that can accept hydrogen ions. Bases are also the oxides or hydroxides of metals. A soluble base is also often referred to as an alkali if OH− ions are involved. This ...
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