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unit in Biological Definition

Operon

... or more structural genes that are controlled as a unit to produce messenger RNA (mRNA). Operons occur ... Jacques Monod in 1961 . The operon as a unit of transcription An operon is a unit of transcription consisting of one or more ...

Antibiotic

... protein synthesis Antibiotics which bind to the 50S ribosomal unit Lincosamides/lincosides including clindamycin and lincomycin; chloramphenicol, macrolides Antibiotics which interfere the 30S ribosomal unit Tetracyclines; aminoglycosides including gentamicin Drugs ...

Electrical energy

... field , or in any volume containing electromagnetic radiation . The SI unit of electrical energy is the joule , while the unit used by electrical utility companies is the watt-hour (Wh) or the ...

Population

... Population density is a measure of the number of people or organisms per unit of area. Variants may express the population per unit of habitable, inhabited, productive (or potentially productive), or ...

Potential energy

... Electrical potential energy The electrical potential energy per unit charge is called electrical potential . It is expressed in volts . The ... For example, gravity is a conservative force . The work done by a unit mass going from point A with U = a to point B with U = b by ...

Proteasome

... of a 20S core protease particle and two 19S regulatory particles. The 20S unit consists of 2 rings of α subunits and 2 rings of β subunits, ... of heptomeric rings. It is about 15 nm long and 11.5 nm wide. Each 19S unit consists of a lid and a base with a 19S regulatory particle is attached to ...

Protein biosynthesis

... that is used to match the codon on the mRNA. tRNA also has a single unit of amino acid attached to it. As the ribosome travels down the mRNA one ... and a long chain of amino acid (protein), is formed. When the entire unit reaches the end codon on the mRNA, it falls apart and a newly formed ...

Anticodon

... An anticodon is a unit made up of three nucleotides which play an important role in various DNA cycles, including RNA translation . It is, specifically, the group of ...

Antibody

... added sugar chains (see glycosylation ) on N-terminal (all antibodies) and occasionally O-terminal (IgA1 and IgD) aminoacid residues. The basic unit of each antibody is a monomer . An antibody can be monomeric, dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric, pentameric etc. The monomer is a "Y"-shaped molecule ...

Artificial life

... realistic and inexpensive ways to animate natural forms such as plant life, animal movement, hair growth, and complicated organic textures. The unit of Theoretical Behavioural Ecology at the Free University of Brussels applied the self-organization theories of Ilya Prigogine and the work of ...

Aseptic technique in microbiology

... tube or flask again before immediately closing it. Keeping in mind that the specimen on the innoculating loop could be contaminated during every unit of time it is exposed, the person would repeat the previous step identically with the tube or flask in which the specimen is to be deposited; ...

Biodiversity

... exception of Andorra, Brunei Darussalam, the Holy See, Iraq, Somalia, Timor-Leste, and the United States of America. If the gene is the fundamental unit of natural selection, thus of evolution, some, like E.O. Wilson, say that the real biodiversity is the genetic diversity. However, the species ...

Carrier

... Carrier , the company which he founded Carrier , a video game for the Sega Dreamcast the town of Carrier, Oklahoma a unit in the computer game StarCraft , the Protoss Carrier . ...

Cell growth

... synaptic contacts onto the neuron or from a neuron onto other cells. For example, the size of motoneurons usually reflects the size of the motor unit that is controlled by the motoneuron. Invertebrates often have giant neurons and axons that provide special functions such as rapid action ...

Centromere

... large arrays of repetitive DNA where the sequence within individual repeat elements is similar but not identical. In humans, the centromeric repeat unit is called α-satellite. However, repeats of α-satellite are not sufficient to cause the assembly of a kinetochore, and there are ...

Diffusion

... Osmosis Osmotic Quorum sensing Respiration Reverse osmosis Second messenger Semipermeable membrane SI derived unit Sintering Synapse Transport phenomena External links Some pictures that display diffusion and osmosis ...

DNA

... helical forms Geometry attribute A-form B-form Z-form Helix sense right-handed right-handed left-handed Repeating unit 1 bp 1 bp 2 bp Rotation/bp 33.6 35.9 60/2 Mean bp/turn 10.7 10.0 12 Inclination of bp to axis +19 ...

Genetics

... have been demonstrated. From his statistical analysis Mendel defined a concept that he described as an allele , which was the fundamental unit of heredity. The term allele as Mendel used it is nearly synonymous with the term gene , whilst the term allele now means a specific variant of ...

Kidney

... in the human renal medulla. The outside is covered by the renal capsule , which is a layer of loose connective tissue . The basic functional unit of the kidney is the nephron , of which there are more than a million in each normal adult kidney. Nephrons regulate water and soluble matter ...

Microscope

... to reduce aberrations , particularly chromatic aberration and spherical aberration . In modern microscopes the mirror is replaced by a lamp unit providing stable, controllable illumination. Basic microscope main elements ocular lens or eye-piece objective turret, or ...

Mitosis

... along their lengths. When chromosomes are paired up and attached, each individual chromosome in the pair is called a chromatid , while the whole unit (confusingly) is called a chromosome. Just to be even more confusing, when the chromatids separate, they are no longer called chromatids, but are ...

Modern evolutionary synthesis

... speciation . A particular interpretation of neo-Darwinism most commonly associated with Richard Dawkins asserts that the gene is the only true unit of selection . Dawkins further extended the Darwinian idea to include non-biological systems exhibiting the same type of selective behavior of the ...

Myosin

... still not known. The Muscle is composed of single muscle cells (sometimes known as "muscle fibers"). Within the cells are myofibrils ; the basic unit of a the contractile apparatus of a myofibril is the sarcomere , which is composed of three different filament systems, the thin filaments ...

Nephron

... Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney . It is a tiny tubule consisting of a cluster of capillaries called the glomerulus , surrounded by a hollow bulb known as Bowman's ...

Nucleotide

... D A or G or T H B C or G or T V X or N A or C or G or T X A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA . A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase , a pentose sugar , and a ...

Osmosis

... by increasing the pressure in the region of high solute concentration with respect to that in the low solute concentration region. The force per unit area required to prevent the passage of water through a semi-permeable membrane and into a solution of greater concentration is equivalent to the ...

Osmoregulation

... is achieved in vertebrates Four processes occur: filtration - fluid portion of blood (plasma) is filtered from nephron (functional unit of vertebrate kidney) structure known as the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule or glomerular capsule (in the kidney's cortex) and flows down the ...

Photon

... to the theory of relativity , and so photons have only two spin projections. Individual photons are circularly polarized on account of their unit spin. Quantum state Even visible light is commonly encountered in quantum states which are not "pure" photons but combinations (technically, ...

Prophase

... the centromere . When chromosomes are paired up and attached, each individual chromosome in the pair is called a chromatid , while the whole unit (confusingly) is called a chromosome. Somewhat confusingly, when the chromatids separate, they are no longer called chromatids, but are called ...

Quaternary structure

... definition follows a classical approach to biochemistry, established at times when the disctinction between a protein and a functional, proteinaceous unit was difficult to elucidate. More recently, people refer to protein-protein interaction when discussing quaternary structure of proteins and consider ...

Ribosome

... a (small) 30S and a (large) 50S subunit, whereas eukaryotes use 80S ribosomes, each consisting of a (small) 40S and a bound (large) 60S subunit.[The unit S means Svedberg units, a measure of the rate of sedimentation of a particle in a centrifuge, where the sedimentation rate is associated with the ...

Stoma

... slide. The stomata leave clearly visible impressions in the nail varnish. A graticule slide allows for the counting of how many stomata (per unit area) are on the leaf surface, a characteristic of physiological significance. ...

Mitosis

... along their lengths. When chromosomes are paired up and attached, each individual chromosome in the pair is called a chromatid , while the whole unit (confusingly) is called a chromosome. Just to be even more confusing, when the chromatids separate, they are no longer called chromatids, but are ...

Thomas Hunt Morgan

... Morgan's findings about genes and their location on chromosomes helped transform biology into an experimental science." The centimorgan , a unit of recombinant frequency used in gene mapping, was named in his honor. External links ...

Trait

... of energy and matter in order to maintain their overall elevated energy state . Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms The heritable unit that may produce a trait is called a gene . A gene is a strand of DNA that is part of a very long and compacted string of DNA called a ...
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