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transmitted in Biological Definition

Endosymbiont

... her offspring. In some cases, the bacteria are transmitted in the egg, as in Buchnera ; in others like Wigglesworthia , they are transmitted via milk to the developing insect embryo. The ... , is that since the endosymbionts are maternally transmitted and have no opportunity to exchange genes with ...

Endosymbiont

... her offspring. In some cases, the bacteria are transmitted in the egg, as in Buchnera ; in others like Wigglesworthia , they are transmitted via milk to the developing insect embryo. The ... , is that since the endosymbionts are maternally transmitted and have no opportunity to exchange genes with ...

Muller's ratchet

... genes may be lost when organism's genes are only transmitted vertically, without recombination caused by ... bacterial endosymbiont of insects, which is only transmitted to offspring from the mother. Another example is mitochondria and chloroplasts , which are also transmitted only vertically (although, in this case, they are ...

Avian influenza

... , spreading it to more susceptible domestic stocks. It can also be transmitted by contaminated feed, water, equipment and clothing; however, there is no ... from birds to humans) will inevitably mutate to the point where it can be transmitted from human to human. It is at that point that a pandemic becomes likely. ...

Blood

... an important vector of infection. AIDS , the virus of which, HIV , is transmitted through contact between blood, semen , or the bodily secretions of an infected person. Hepatitis B and C are transmitted primarily through blood contact. Owing to blood-borne infections, ...

Ebola

... discovered. Ebola hemorrhagic fever Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids such as blood. The cause of ... 1989 (Draper 6). It is possible to say that since this disease can be transmitted from monkeys to humans, that Ebola will probably reappear in places where ...

Arbovirus

... An Arbovirus (short for Arthropod borne virus ) is a virus that is primarily transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks and mosquitoes . The term Arbovirus is not part of the taxonomic classification of viruses , that is, viruses from ...

DNA

... referred to as the molecule of heredity as it is inherited and used to propagate traits . During reproduction , it is replicated and transmitted to offspring. In bacteria and other simple cell organisms, DNA is not separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope . In the complex ...

Epigenetics

... (see Waterland citation). In both cases, the object of study includes how gene regulatory information that is not expressed in DNA sequences is transmitted from one generation (of cells or organisms) to the next - that is (harking back to the Greek prefix), 'in addition to' the genetic information ...

Eye

... and some mollusks (such as octopuses ) the eye works by projecting images onto a light-sensitive retina , where the light is detected and transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve . The eye is typically roughly spherical, filled with a transparent gel-like substance called the vitreous ...

Gene therapy

... been directed at somatic cells, whereas germline engineering in humans remains only a highly controversial prospect. For the introduced gene to be transmitted normally to offspring, it needs not only to inserted into the cell, but also to be incorporated into the chromosomes by genetic recombination . ...

Hepatitis B

... and various other parts of Asia. Over one-third of the world's population has been or is actively infected by hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is largely transmitted through exposure to bodily fluids containing the virus. This includes unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions , re-use of contaminated ...

Muscle

... movement of actin against myosin to produce contraction and relaxation. In skeletal muscle, contraction is stimulated by electrical impulses transmitted by the nerves , the motor nerves and motoneurons in particular. All skeletal muscle and many smooth muscle contractions are facilitated by the ...

Semen

... Semen and transmission of disease Semen is in itself harmless on the skin or if swallowed. However, semen can be the vehicle for many sexually transmitted diseases , including HIV , the virus that causes AIDS . It is also hypothesized that components of semen, such as the spermatozoa as well as the ...

Signal transduction

... cells that are of the same cell type as the emitting cell. An example for autocrine signals is found in immune cells . Juxtacrine signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells ...
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