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Transcription in Biological Definition

Genetic code

... initiation sequences are also required to induce transcription into mRNA and binding by ribosomes . The most ... any other of the near-infinite set of possible transcription tables would have done just as well? Already a ... for them. This suggests that the current, complex transcription mechanism involving tRNA and associated enzymes ...

Developmental biology

... in embryonic development were identified. transcription factors are the key regulators of which genes ... different amounts of the possible proteins. The transcription factors are regulated by signal transduction ... of genes that are differentially regulated by transcription factors in different cell types are genes for ...

Morphogenesis

... class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells ... genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other genes and, in turn, these secondary ... that illustrate the roles of morphogens, transcription factors and cell adhesion molecules in ...

Enhancer

... the trans-acting factors, much like a set of transcription factors ) to enhance transcription levels of genes (hence the name) in a ... An enhancer does not need to bind close to the transcription initiation site to affect its transcription, as ...

Gene

... , such as AIDS , require the reverse transcription of their genome from RNA into DNA before their ... themselves. Introns are removed on the heels of transcription by splicing . In the primary molecular sense ... if it is transcribed to RNA . Because the transcription starts from a specific base-pair sequence (a ...

Genetic code

... initiation sequences are also required to induce transcription into mRNA and binding by ribosomes . The most ... any other of the near-infinite set of possible transcription tables would have done just as well? Already a ... for them. This suggests that the current, complex transcription mechanism involving tRNA and associated enzymes ...

Homeobox

... ) which can bind DNA. Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which typically switch on cascades of ... of their target genes as complexes with other transcription factors, often also homeodomain proteins. Such ... a member of the POU DNA-binding domain family of transcription factors so it can bind to DNA using both the POU ...

Morphogenesis

... class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells ... genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other genes and, in turn, these secondary ... that illustrate the roles of morphogens, transcription factors and cell adhesion molecules in ...

Operon

... Monod in 1961 . The operon as a unit of transcription An operon is a unit of transcription consisting of one or more structural genes, and ... switch) a promoter (a binding site for the transcription enzyme ). The switch of an operon (that is, ...

Promoter

... Promoter elements Core promoter transcription Start Site (TSS) Approximately -35 A ... encoding tRNAs and other small RNAs General transcription factor binding sites Proximal promoter Approximately -250 Specific transcription factor binding sites Distal promoter ...

Protein biosynthesis

... refers to a multi-step process, beginning with transcription and ending with translation . Protein ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 transcription 2 Translation 3 Events following biosynthesis 4 External links transcription Main article: ...

Retrovirus

... transcriptase to perform a kind of reverse transcription of its genome from RNA into DNA for ... form for its nucleic acid genome; the reverse transcription takes place in the host's cytosol . The ... host's genome, is termed a provirus . While transcription was classically thought to only occur from DNA to ...

Signal transduction

... as proteins , many of which are enzymes, transcription factors or other regulators of metabolic activity. Because transcription factors can activate still more genes in turn, an ... . The nuclear receptors are ligand -activated transcription activators; on binding with the ligand (the ...

Apoptosis

... well understood; and both Fas and TNF-R1 trigger events that activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which induces the expression ... their research on how interferon alpha and beta (IFN-alpha/beta)induce transcription of the p53 gene , resulting in the increase of p53 protein level and ...

Archaea

... aspects of cell structure and metabolism . However, their genetic transcription and translation - the two central processes in molecular biology - do ... translation uses eukaryotic initiation and elongation factors, and their transcription involves TATA-binding proteins and TFIIB as in eukaryotes. Several other ...

Chromatin

... compact structure. This process is associated with the cessation of transcription and involves nuclear protein exchange. The histones are mostly ... compact structure. This process is associated with the cessation of transcription and involves nuclear protein exchange. The histones are mostly displaced, ...

DNA

... which facilitates the unwinding of the double-helix required for RNA transcription . Conditions for formation of A and Z helices The two other known ... ". It follows then, somewhat paradoxically, that the template for transcription is the antisense strand. The resulting transcript is an RNA replica of ...

Cell nucleus

... respect to the cytoplasm ), in which many substances are dissolved. These substances include nucleotide triphospates, enzymes , proteins , and transcription factors . Genetic material ( DNA ) is also present in the nucleus, the DNA is present as a DNA-protein complex called chromatin . The DNA is present ...

Chromosome

... are visible with an optical microscope . Prokaryotes do not possess histones or nuclei. In its relaxed state, the DNA can be accessed for transcription , regulation, and replication . Chromosomes were first observed by Karl Wilhelm von Ngeli in 1842 and their behavior later described in detail ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... signalling: The chloroplast talks!", Current Biology , 11 (8), pp. R307-R310. (Recounts evidence that chloroplast-encoded proteins affect transcription of nuclear genes, as opposed to the more well-documented cases of nuclear-encoded proteins that affect mitochondria or chloroplasts.) [2] ...

Gene therapy

... it can be considered part of the genetic material of the host cell. The process of producing a DNA copy from an RNA molecule is termed reverse transcription . It is carried out by one of the enzymes carried in the virus, called reverse transcriptase . After this DNA copy is produced and is free in the ...

Genetics

... the "one gene, one protein" concept is now known to be simplistic. For example, a single gene may produce multiple products, depending on how its transcription is regulated. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 History 1.1 Timeline of notable discoveries 2 Areas of genetics ...

Gene regulatory network

... also 4 Bibliography 5 External links Overview Genes can be viewed as nodes in a network , with input being proteins such as transcription factors , and outputs being the level of gene expression . The node itself can also be viewed as a function which can be obtained by combining basic ...

Lambda phage

... on the chromosome): cI gene OR3 OR2 OR1 cro gene The lambda repressor is a dimer also known as the cI protein. It regulates the transcription of the cI protein and the Cro protein. The life cycle of lambda phages is controlled by cI and Cro proteins. The lambda phage will remain in the ...

Meiosis

... : synaptonemal complex dissasembles (homologous chromoses are kept together by recombination nodules ), there is cellular growth and genetic transcription (and so chromosomes are seen less condensed) Diakinesis : chromosomes condense again, Chiasmata (visual evidence of crossing over) can be seen. ...

Molecular biology

... simple interpretations of such "knock-out" studies. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material . The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then ...

Natural selection

... several mechanisms that occur in the process of reproduction: in the case of both asexual and sexual reproduction, random mutation (including DNA transcription errors); in the case of sexual reproduction (which mixes the DNA of two parents into an offspring), gene flow and genetic drift are also ...

Oncogene

... , for example, the Raf kinase , and cyclin-dependent kinases (through overexpression ). Adaptor proteins in signal transduction . transcription factors . Related articles Tumor suppressor gene Apoptosis ...

Phosphorylation

... An example of the important role that phosphorylation plays is the p53 tumor suppressor gene , which—when active—stimulates transcription of gene that suppress the cell cycle , even to the extent that it undergoes apoptosis . However, this activity should be limited to situations ...

RNA

... ring; as well as by the use of uracil , instead of thymine . One of the main functions of RNA is to copy genetic information from DNA (via transcription ) and then translate it into proteins (by translation ). Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Chemical structure 2 ...

Splicing (genetics)

... do not usually have introns, eukaryotes initially create a primary mRNA transcript called pre-mRNA that is composed of both introns and exons (see transcription ). Pre-mRNA has to be spliced before it can be translated into protein. During splicing, the introns are removed from the mRNA using one of three ...

Virus

... examples in which animal viruses have provided important models for biological research of their host cells include studies of DNA replication , transcription , RNA processing , and protein transport . Viruses as tools for genetic engineering Geneticists regularly use viruses as vectors to ...
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