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Apoptosis

... "worm people" at Cambridge 4.2 Coining of the term apoptosis 4.3 1990s and later 5 ... homeodynamics as a more accurate and eloquent term ( Damasio 1999 , p. 141). From 50 to 70 billion ... of programmed cell death. Coining of the term apoptosis In a signal article published in ...

Cladistics

... neutral features like exact ultrastructure (a term for extremely fine structure, microscopic or ... notions, with separate purposes. Many use the term monophyly in its older sense, where it includes paraphyly, and use the alternate term holophyly to describe clades ( monophyly sensu ...

Cloning

... design. Also see clone (genetics) . The term clone is derived from ... is a "long o" instead of a "short o". Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general ... are thought to be relatively minor. The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all ...

Epigenetics

... The term epigenetics has over time been used in ... is sometimes credited with coining the term epigenetics in 1942, when he defined it as ... the phenotype into being”. However the term goes back at least to 1896 (see References). ...

Genetics

... , which was the fundamental unit of heredity. The term allele as Mendel used it is nearly synonymous with the term gene , whilst the term allele now means a specific variant of a ...

Hermaphrodite

... in other vertebrates. See below for use of the term in plants . Note: The term "hermaphrodite" has historically been used to ... with ambiguous genitalia or biological sex. The term intersexual to describe these people is now ...

Homeostasis

... by interrelated regulation mechanisms. The term was coined in 1932 by Walter Cannon from two ... 5 See also Overview The term is most often used in the sense of biological ... such as anabolism . Other fields The term has come to be used in other fields, as well. ...

Homunculus

... it can be viewed as an entity or agent . The term appears to have been first used by the alchemist ... diet of lavender seeds and earthworms . The term homunculus was later used in the discussion of ... of homunculi "all the way down". Today the term is used in a number of ways to describe systems ...

Human

... Introduction to the Metaphysic of Morals . The term "person" is thus used of non-human animals , and ... of psychology studies the human psyche. The term psyche describes the mental and emotional ... the notion of the collective unconscious , a term taken from philosophy and used by Jung to ...

Insulin

... diabetes mellitus – general term referring to all states characterized by ... choice. Several large, well designed, long term studies have conclusively shown that diabetic ... and can be fatal. A good measure of long term diabetic control (over approximately 90 days in ...

Macromolecule

... number of atoms . But generally the use of term is restricted to molecules of more than 100 ... rarely referred to as "macromolecules." The term "macromolecule" is sometimes used to refer to ... low. According to IUPAC recommendations the term macromolecule is reserved for an individual ...

Redox

... in chemistry are the redox processes . The term redox process accounts for all processes in which ... to yield water and carbon dioxide. The term redox comes from the two concepts of red ... mitochondria perform similar functions. The term redox state is often used to describe the ...

Potential energy

... want to link to an explanation of that second term (the gravitational forces created by hollow ... point is often made explicit by using the term potential difference . The term voltage is also common. The electrical ...

Redox

... in chemistry are the redox processes . The term redox process accounts for all processes in which ... to yield water and carbon dioxide. The term redox comes from the two concepts of red ... mitochondria perform similar functions. The term redox state is often used to describe the ...

Symbiosis

... even the merging of two dissimilar organisms. The term host is usually used for the larger (macro) of ... is not affected (- 0) In some cases, the term symbiosis is used only if the association is ... as defined in this article does not restrict the term to only the mutually beneficial interactions. ...

Twin

... The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or ... pregnancy is much less likely to carry to full term than singleton birth. Since some premature ... This article is limited to this usage of the term "twin". Contents ...

Virus

... infectious particle; for other uses of the term see virus (disambiguation) . An extensive ... the cellular machinery for self reproduction. The term virus usually refers to those particles which ... and many single-celled organisms), whilst the term bacteriophage or phage is used to describe ...

Astrobiology

... space, or was designed much nearer to home. The term is also used in science fiction , with the ... of its variables. However uncertainties in the term of the equation make it impossible to predict ... the biology of alien organisms. This use of the term demonstrates the speculative generation of ...

Biotechnology

... "biotechnology" as it is defined by scientists or the UN. Rather, the term describes start-up companies especially in medical discovery that are ... eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. The term blue biotechnology has also been used to describe the marine and aquatic ...

Culture

... By the late 19th century, anthropologists had adopted and adapted this term to a broader definition of culture that they could apply to a wider ... often had highly contrasting values and conventions. They thus used the term subculture to identify the cultures of parts of larger societies. Since ...

Down syndrome

... who may be at increased risk to have a child with Down syndrome. The term was first used by the editor of The Lancet in 1961 [1] . It was ... Down syndrome is the most prevalent and best studied. Down syndrome is a term used to encompass a number of genetic disorders of which trisomy 21 is ...

Drug

... 9 Books about Illicit and Popular Drugs Terminology The term "drug" is necessarily a vague one, being defined by intent: for example, ... may even be considered both a food and a drug at the same time. The term "medication" is frequently applied to drugs used for medical treatment, ...

Eugenics

... idea was first formulated by Sir Francis Galton in 1865 (though the term was not coined until 1883 ), and eventually came to encompass the idea of ... with such diseases are required either to not marry or to agree to "long term contraceptive measures" or to submit to sterilization. A similar ...

Fermentation

... fermentation . This is the method used in beer production, although the term can be used for other drinks such as sake , mead and wine . The term is also sometimes used to refer to any chemical mixing process. Brewing ...

Gene

... regard to many and perhaps most ("complex" or "multifactoral") traits. The term phenotype refers to the characteristics that result from this interplay ... that conveys traits from parent to offspring. Although he did not use the term gene , he explained his results in terms of inherited characteristics. ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... 19th century French naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense.¹ Lamarck is remembered today ... on plants, Lamarck was appointed curator of invertebrates -- another term he coined. He began a series of public lectures. Before 1800 , he was an ...

Long-term potentiation

... for the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in hippocampal long term potentiation". J Biol Chem 272 (31), 19103-6. PMID 9235897 ^ ... Feb 6;385(6616):533-6. PMID 9020359 Bennett MR. "The concept of long term potentiation of transmission at synapses." Prog Neurobiol. 2000 ...

Natural selection

... on which natural selection acts. It is important to note that the term "natural selection" is often used in the inaccurate yet fairly harmless ... sexual characteristics, an ecological selection is taking place (this term is used solely to differentiate processes irrelevant to mating, and is of ...

Osmosis

... osmosis technique is commonly applied to purify water. Sometimes the term " forward osmosis " is used for osmosis, particularly when used for ... Active transport Reverse osmosis Osmosis Jones is also a term which entered popular parlance after the film of the same name, also the ...

Parthenogenesis

... Current hypotheses suggest that, while asexual reproduction may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, over the long term sexual reproduction offers a net advantage by allowing more rapid ...

Proteome

... The term proteome was first used in 1995 and has been applied to several ... This is very roughly the protein equivalent of the genome . The term "proteome" has also been used to refer to the collection of proteins in ...

Species

... It is the whole binomial that is the species name , not just the second term of the binomial. For example, the name of our species is Homo sapiens . ... somewhat idealistic. Since it assumes sexual reproduction , it leaves the term undefined for a large class of organisms that reproduce asexually. ...

Optical spectrum

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Historical use of the term 2 Explanation of Newton's experiment 3 Spectroscopy 4 See also Historical use of the term Sir Isaac Newton first used the Latin word spectrum (appearance or ...

Abiogenesis

... Abiogenesis , in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. Today, the term is primarily used in the context of biology and the origin of life . Some confusion exists on this topic, because early concepts of abiogenesis ...

Alcohol

... to ethanol , also known as grain alcohol , and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage ). This sense underlies the term alcoholism ( addiction to alcohol). Other forms of alcohol are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol or by ...

Alga

... from bacteria and protozoa in that they are photoautotrophic . Thus, the algae are no longer considered a natural grouping, but the term is still used for convenience. The study of algae is called phycology or algology . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ...

Allele frequency

... Allele frequency is a term of population genetics that is used in characterizing the genetic diversity of a species population , or equivalently the richness of its ...

Amino acid

... amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups . In biochemistry , this shorter and more general term is frequently used to refer to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same ...

Anatomy

... consists of a knowledge of the exact form, position, size and relationship of the various structures of the healthy human body, and to this study the term descriptive or topographical human anatomy is given, though it is often, less happily, spoken of as anthropotomy . So intricate is the human body ...

Antibiotic

... anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitic drugs. They are relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections . The term originally described only those formulations derived from living organisms, but is now applied also to synthetic antimicrobials , such as the ...
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