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synthesis in Biological Definition

Adenosine triphosphate

... cells . ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids . ATP molecules are also used ... 1 Chemical properties 2 synthesis 3 ATP in the human body 4 Other ... 9--D-ribofuranosyladenine-5'-triphosphate. synthesis ATP can be produced by various cellular ...

Amine

... 1 Naming 2 Properties 3 synthesis 4 Reactions 5 Aromatic amines 6 ... volatile amines often have fishy smells. synthesis primary amines are firstly produced due to the Gabriel synthesis . Reactions Dissolving secondary ...

Antibiotic

... Antibiotics which interfere with cell-wall synthesis Beta-lactams, including penicillins and ... which interfere with bacterial protein synthesis Antibiotics which bind to the 50S ribosomal ... gentamicin Drugs which inhibit folate synthesis Sulfonamides and trimethoprim Drugs ...

ATP synthase

... flip-flop, mechanism, which postulated that ATP synthesis is coupled with a conformational change in the ... in the F 1 particle, eventually leading to the synthesis of ATP. For elucidating this Boyer and Walker ... -part sticks into mitochondrial matrix, were ATP synthesis takes place). Plant ATP synthase In plants ...

Biology

... an additional mechanism in the so-called modern synthesis . The evolutionary history of a species ... the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are ... from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental ...

Evolution

... Mendel's theory of genetics is called the modern synthesis . In the modern synthesis, "evolution" means a ... theory The theory underlying the modern synthesis has three major aspects: The common descent ... a reciprocal relationship. Currently, the modern synthesis is the most powerful theory explaining variation ...

Gregor Mendel

... genetics as the basis of the start of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. His experimental ... have fantasized about a historical evolutionary synthesis of Darwinian natural selection and Mendelian ... uncut). In the event, the modern evolutionary synthesis did not start until the 1920s , by which time ...

Insulin

... increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis modification of the activity of numerous ... on cells include: increased glycogen synthesis – insulin forces storage of glucose in ... levels in diabetes. increased fatty acid synthesis – insulin forces fat cells to take in ...

Modern evolutionary synthesis

... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis ), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism , brings together Charles ...

Pentose phosphate pathway

... a process that serves to generate NADPH and the synthesis of pentose (5- carbon ) sugars . There are two ... is generated, and the second is the non-oxidative synthesis of 5 carbon sugars. The pathway is one of the ... 1 Oxidative phase 2 synthesis of sugar 3 Non-oxidative phase 4 See ...

Phospholipid

... serine 1.5 Diphosphatidyl glycerol 1.6 synthesis 2 Sphingomyelin 3 Amphiphatic ... serine Diphosphatidyl glycerol synthesis In phosphoglyceride synthesis, phosphatidates ... (CDP-diacylglycerol). In the synthesis of phospatidyl ethanolamine, the alcohol is first ...

Population genetics

... a vital ingredient in the modern evolutionary synthesis , its primary founders were Sewall Wright , J. ... "formal" achievement of the modern evolutionary synthesis has been the framework of mathematical ... References J. Beatty. 1986. "The synthesis and the synthetic theory" in Integrating ...

RNA

... structure 2 Comparison to DNA 3 synthesis 4 RNA world hypothesis 5 Biological ... the formation of higher-order structures. synthesis RNA is made by an enzyme , RNA polymerase , using DNA as a template. The synthesis begins when the enzyme binds to special promoter ...

Alcohol

... drugs, perfumes , and vegetable essences such as vanilla . In organic synthesis , alcohols frequently serve as versatile intermediates. Sources ... high temperature and pressure. Methanol is manufactured from synthesis gas , where CO + 2 H 2 are combined to produce methanol using a Cu , ZnO ...

Biochemistry

... areas of biochemistry include the genetic code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis , cell membrane transport, and signal transduction . Contents ... Anselme Payen . In 1828 , Friedrich Whler published a paper about the synthesis of urea , proving that organic compounds can be created artificially, ...

Cell biology

... in membranes ( membrane proteins ), are transported into the ER during synthesis and further processed in the Golgi apparatus . From the Golgi, membrane ... from the cell. The ER and Golgi can be thought of as the "membrane protein synthesis compartment" and the "membrane protein processing compartment", ...

Ion gradient

... form of energy in active transport, electron potential generation, NADPH synthesis and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. Some archaea , most notably ... membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into mitochondrial matrix, were ATP synthesis takes place). See also Transmembrane potential difference ...

DNA

... is nearly identical to the previous strand. Errors that occur in the synthesis are known as mutations . The process known as PCR mimics this process ... replication Main article: DNA replication DNA replication or DNA synthesis is the process of copying the double-stranded DNA prior to cell division ....

Evolutionary biology

... into evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology . ... in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s . It was not until the 1970s and 1980s , ...

Glucose

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Isomerism 2 synthesis 3 Role in metabolism 4 External links Isomerism ... same configuration at its penultimate carbon as D -glyceraldehyde. synthesis The product of photosynthesis in plants and some prokaryotes . ...

Origin of life

... back to ancestral reactions that provide alternative pathways to the synthesis of organic building blocks from simple gaseous compounds. In contrast to ... from redox reactions of these metal sulfides is not only available for the synthesis of organic molecules, but also for the formation of oligomers and ....

Peptide bond

... molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H 2 O). This is a dehydration synthesis reaction, and usually occurs between amino acids . Dehydration synthesis reaction The resulting C-N bond is called a peptide bond, and the ...

Primer

... . In most natural DNA replication, the ultimate primer for DNA synthesis is a short strand of RNA . This RNA is produced by an RNA polymerase , ... starting and ending points, where the DNA-Polymerase binds and begins the synthesis of the new DNA strand. The choice of the length of the primers and their ...

Anabolism

... "building up" organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and differentiation of cells and increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include growth and mineralization of bone and increase of muscle mass. Catabolic processes ...

Amino acid

... . Other amino acids contained in proteins are usually formed by post-translational modification , that is modification after translation ( protein synthesis ). These modifications are often essential for the function of the protein. At least two amino acids other than the standard 20 are sometimes ...

Anticodon

... is, specifically, the group of nucleotides on a strand of tRNA that is complementary to specific codons on a strand of mRNA . See also protein synthesis . The first base on the anticodon can be modified to another nucleotide such as inosine which allows that base to pair with cytosine , adenine ...

Artificial life

... systems. Computer scientist Christopher Langton coined the term in the late 1980s when he held the first "International Conference on the synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems" (otherwise known as Artificial Life I) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1987 . Contents ...

Botany

... Understand fundamental life processes Plants are convenient organisms in which fundamental life processes (like cell division and protein synthesis for example) can be studied, without the ethical dilemmas of studying animals or humans. The genetic laws of inheritance were discovered in this ...

Cancer

... Other examples of drugs that show promise for chemoprevention include COX-2 inhibitors (which inhibit a cyclooxygenase enzyme involved in the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins ). Considerable research effort is now devoted to the development of vaccines (to prevent infection by ...

Anabolism

... "building up" organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and differentiation of cells and increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include growth and mineralization of bone and increase of muscle mass. Catabolic processes ...

Charles Darwin

... recognition would not become fully standard until the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel 's work in the early 20th century and the creation of the modern synthesis ). His work was extremely controversial at the time he published it and many during his time didn't take it seriously. Darwin's theory of evolution ...

Chromatid

... human cells, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, thus 46 chromosomes. When it is ready to divide, each chromosome will replicate itself during the synthesis phase within its life cycle. Chromosomes that have replicated stay together, held by the previously mentioned centromere. Because one chromosome ...

Genetic code

... The genetic code is a set of rules, which maps DNA sequences to proteins in the living cell , and is employed in the process of protein synthesis . Nearly all living things use the same genetic code, called the standard genetic code , although a few organisms use minor variations of the ...

Cytoplasm

... place for chemical substances indispensable to life. Vital metabolic reactions take place here, for example anaerobic glycolysis and proteic synthesis . See also : microtubules , vesicle ...

Cytoskeleton

... and kinesins they transport organelles like mitochondria or vesicles .) the axoneme of cilia and flagella the mitotic spindle synthesis of the cell wall in plants. The prokaryotic cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton was previously considered to be a feature only of eukaryotic ...

Developmental biology

... formation of the body of a living organism. The related field of evolutionary developmental biology was formed largely in the 1990s and is a synthesis of findings from molecular developmental biology and evolutionary biology which considers the diversity of organismal form in an evolutionary ...

Electron transfer chain

... a cross-membrane proton gradient. This proton motive force created by the ETC is used to power membrane transporters and adenosine triphosphate synthesis by ATP synthase (aka the F 0 F 1 particle). They are used in photophosphorylation and respiration . In eukaryotes , including humans, an ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... folds, and controls the quality of proteins. Smooth ER The smooth ER has functions in several metabolic processes. It takes part in the synthesis of various lipids (e.g., for building membranes such as phospholipids ), fatty acids and steroids (e.g., hormones ), and also plays an ...

Endomembrane system

... and signals into and out of the cell. The nuclear envelope is the membrane around the nucleus of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum is a synthesis and transport organelle [the endoplasmic reticulum is an extension of the nuclear envelope]. The Golgi apparatus acts as the packaging and ...

Enzyme

... one, in effect running the reaction 'backwards', or 'uphill'. For instance, the high energy compound ATP is generated in the cell by coupling its synthesis to the oxidation of sugars , which releases more energy than the syntehsis of ATP requires; then the ATP is broken down in turn by other enzymes ...
Other Contents
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