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Polymerase chain reaction

... evening just before leaving the lab, so it can run overnight. The DNA will not be damaged at 7C ... PCR, these two sets of reactions would be run out on an agarose gel, and the band pattern will ... When the product of the PCR reaction are run on an agarose gel (see Figure 3 above) a band, ...

Red Queen

... derived, Alice complains that she has to run just to stay in the same place. The character of ... Alice by the shoulder in order that they can run together very fast in a desperate attempt to keep ... to merely remaining in the same place, one must run at least twice as fast. "Well, in our ...

Affinity chromatography

... solid medium is packed onto a chromatography column , the initial mixture run through the column to allow binding, a wash buffer run through the column and the elution buffer subsequently applied to the ...

BLAST

... Waterman. Program The BLAST program can either be downloaded and run as a command-line utility "blastall" or accessed for free over the web. ... a sort of average sequence. A query against the protein database is then run using this profile, and a larger group of proteins found. This larger ...

Chromatography

... like TLC the retention is measured as the retention factor R f , the run length of the compound divided by the run length of the eluent front: The retention of a compound often ...

Gel electrophoresis

... mixtures have initially been injected next to each other, they will run parallel in individual lanes. Depending on the number of different ... available, which contain molecules of known sizes. If such a marker was run on one lane in the gel parallel to the mixture(s), the bands it displays ...

Enzyme

... a net negative Gibbs free energy ), i.e. with the enzyme, they run in the same direction as they would without the enzyme, just more quickly; ... pathway with higher net energy, or vice versa. An enzyme can, however, run a normally non-spontaneous reaction 'backwards' by coupling it to a ...

Eugenics

... way in which human intellectual, moral, and personality traits tended to run in families. Galton's basic argument was that "genius" and "talent" were ... early scientific journals devoted to the study of heredity in general were run by eugenicists and featured eugenics articles alongside studies of ...

Gel electrophoresis

... mixtures have initially been injected next to each other, they will run parallel in individual lanes. Depending on the number of different ... available, which contain molecules of known sizes. If such a marker was run on one lane in the gel parallel to the mixture(s), the bands it displays ...

Homunculus

... However, after a short time, the homunculus would turn on its creator and run away. The recipe consisted of a bag of bones, sperm, skin fragments and ... used in a number of ways to describe systems that are thought of as being run by a "little man" inside. For instance, the homunculus continues to be ...

Twin

... genetic basis for fraternal twinning—that is, non-identical twins do run in families. Identical twins Identical twins occur when a single ... influences such as scars. It is thought that identical twins do not run in families, but rather identical twins occur more or less randomly. ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... and Wales . In 1844 he was hired as a master at the Collegiate School in Leicester . In 1845 his brother William died and Wallace returned to run the surveying business. Exploration and study of the natural world In 1848 , Wallace, together with another naturalist, Henry Walter Bates ...

Antigen

... the lysis or apoptosis of the infected cell. In order to keep the cytotoxic cells from killing cells just for presenting normal proteins, they run through a test cycle (negative control in the thymus ) just after their production. Only those CTL that do not react to normal body protein ...

Axon

... micrometre across-- but may extend to macroscopic lengths. The longest axons in the human body, for example, are those of the sciatic nerve , which run from the base of the spine to the big toe of each foot. These single-cell fibers may extend a metre or even longer. In vertebrates ...

Dialysis

... into a machine that filters out waste products. The cleansed blood is then returned to the body. In peritoneal dialysis , a special solution is run through a tube into the peritoneal cavity , the abdominal body cavity around the intestine . The fluid is left there for a while to absorb waste ...

DNA

... in a nonliving system. Because pairing causes the nucleotide bases to face the helical axis, the sugar and phosphate groups of the nucleotides run along the outside; the two chains they form are sometimes called the " backbones " of the helix. In fact, it is chemical bonds between the phosphates ...

Down syndrome

... person in, some institution will have to provide an apt and comfortable environment for the person with Down syndrome, as they are usually unable to run their own household, apply for a regular job, get a driver's licence and take care of insurances etc. One increasingly popular model in Europe lets ...

Edward Jenner

... inoculation was commonplace in England. However it had two major disadvantages: it was dangerous, and until the infection from inoculation had run its course, the subject was infected, and infectious, with actual smallpox. This made them a risk to any family or acquaintances not already immune. ...

Evolutionary tree

... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. Most of the tree was based on ideas from cladistics ; where more than two groups are shown in a ...

Fermentation

... malt into alcohol, carbon dioxide and other components through a process called Glycolysis . After a week or so, the fresh (or "green") beer is run off into conditioning tanks . After conditioning for a week or longer, the beer is often filtered to remove yeast and particulates. The "bright ...

Flagellum

... what is known as a "tumble", and results in reorientation of the cell. The direction at the end of the tumble state is random. The length of the run state is extended when the bacteria moves through a favorable gradient. The bacterial flagellum is proposed by Michael Behe as an example of ...

Gene therapy

... recombination is a very low probability event. Ex vivo The ex vivo approach was the first to be put in to practice. In 1990 trials were run designed to treat children with an inherited immune deficiency, as well as children or adults with high serum cholesterol . Cells were removed from ...

Human

... more elaborate animistic religions, such as Shinto , there is a greater sense of a special character to humans that sets them apart from the general run of animals and objects, while retaining the necessity of ritual to ensure good luck, favorable harvests, and so on. Most animistic belief systems ...

Insulin

... of the research on his return from Europe, but demanded a re-run to prove the method actually worked. Several weeks later it was clear the second run was also a success, and he helped publish their results privately in Toronto that November. However they needed six weeks to extract the isletin, ...

Leaf

... toward the edge of the leaf; e.g. most Acer (maples). Parallel-veined, parallel-ribbed, parallel-nerved, penniparallel — veins run parallel most the length of the leaf, from the base to the apex. Commissural veins (small veins) connect the major parallel veins. Typical for ...

Rudolf Steiner

... in Dornach , Switzerland . It was built entirely by the work of volunteers who offered their skills of craftsmanship and trade. By 1919, the first run of Goethe's Faust had been produced there — the same year as the founding of the first Waldorf school in Stuttgart. The Goetheanum ...
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