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Respiration in Biological Definition

Cellular respiration

... Cellular respiration is, in its broadest definition, the process in ... metabolic pathways : glycolysis , anaerobic respiration or aerobic respiration . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") ...

Glycolysis

... yield of 2 molecules of ATP . Cells performing respiration synthesize much more ATP but this is not considered part of glycolysis. Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces an additional 34 molecules ... Gluconeogenesis Krebs cycle Anaerobic respiration External links The Glycolytic enzymes ...

Metabolism

... molecules into simple compounds: Cellular respiration , metabolic pathways that create energy ( ATP ... of proteins into amino acids . Aerobic respiration Electron transfer chain Oxidative phosphorylation Anaerobic respiration , Cori cycle Lactic acid ...

Respiration

... respiration can refer to: Cellular respiration , which is the use of oxygen in the metabolism of organic molecules. Physiological respiration , which exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide ...

Thermoregulation

... , which control the build-up of heat from aerobic respiration (homeotherms ) and ectotherms (poikilotherms ) ... different figures):faeces and urine about 3, respiration about 20, skin (conduction, radiation and ... the dog, who do not perspire easily by the skin, respiration becomes far more important. But for man the ...

Crista

... ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes , and function in cellular respiration . They provide more surface area for cellular respiration to happen. ...

Photosynthesis

... cellulose , or it may be used as a fuel. This takes place through respiration , found in both animals and plants. In general outline, this is the ... Artificial photosynthesis External links Metabolism, Cellular respiration and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology ...

Lung

... from blood . The process in which this happens is called " external respiration " or breathing. There are also nonrespiratory functions of the lungs. ... but do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They have a flow through respiration system. When a bird inhales, air flows in through the trachea to the ...

Photosynthesis

... cellulose , or it may be used as a fuel. This takes place through respiration , found in both animals and plants. In general outline, this is the ... Artificial photosynthesis External links Metabolism, Cellular respiration and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology ...

Primary nutritional groups

... from water and CO 2 ). It should be noted that the terms aerobic respiration , anaerobic respiration and fermentation are not referring to primary nutritional groups, ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... . ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids . ATP molecules are also used to store the energy plants make in cellular respiration . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Chemical properties 2 Synthesis 3 ATP in the human body 4 Other ...

Aerobic

... of aerobic is anaerobic . See also: Aerobic exercise Aerobic glycolysis Aerobic metabolism Aerobic organism Aerobic respiration Aerobics ...

Anaerobic

... oxygen - see Seahenge . See also: Anaerobic exercise Anaerobic glycolysis Anaerobic metabolism Anaerobic organism Anaerobic respiration oxygen depletion ...

Bacterium

... anaerobes ; and some can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen and are called facultative anaerobes . Bacteria that do not utilize oxygen for respiration but still grow in its presence are called aerotolerant . Bacteria also thrive in environments that are considered extreme for mankind. These ...

Citric acid cycle

... or the Krebs cycle ) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration . In these aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of carbohydrates , fats and ...

Diabetes mellitus

... combined with amplified urination produce dehydration . As the metabolic acidosis worsens, it induces obvious hyperventilation (termed Kussmaul respiration ). On presentation to hospital, the patient in DKA is typically dehydrated and breathing both fast and deeply. Abdominal pain is common and may ...

Diffusion

... system Neurotransmitter Nitric oxide Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Osmosis Osmotic Quorum sensing respiration Reverse osmosis Second messenger Semipermeable membrane SI derived unit Sintering Synapse Transport phenomena ...

Electron transfer chain

... transporters and adenosine triphosphate synthesis by ATP synthase (aka the F 0 F 1 particle). They are used in photophosphorylation and respiration . In eukaryotes , including humans, an ETC is found spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane and accepts electrons from electron donors ...

Bacterium

... anaerobes ; and some can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen and are called facultative anaerobes . Bacteria that do not utilize oxygen for respiration but still grow in its presence are called aerotolerant . Bacteria also thrive in environments that are considered extreme for mankind. These ...

Evolution

... formation of banded iron deposits, and later red beds of iron oxides. This was a necessary prerequisite for the development of aerobic cellular respiration , believed to have emerged around 2 billion years ago. In the last billion years, simple multicellular plants and animals began to appear in the ...

Eukaryote

... in nearly all eukaryotes. They are surrounded by double membranes, the inner of which is folded into invaginations called cristae, where aerobic respiration takes place. They contain their own DNA and are only formed by the fission of other mitochondria. They are now generally held to have developed ...

FAD

... is used by organisms to carry out energy requiring processes. FAD, and the more common NAD , are reduced in the citric acid cycle during aerobic respiration . FAD also stands for Familial Alzheimer disease ...

Fermentation

... into the atmosphere. Products produced by fermentation, such as ethanol and lactic acid , are used as a substitute for oxygen. During cellular respiration , oxygen is the final electron acceptor. However, when no oxygen is available, ethanol and lactic acid is used in place of oxygen . ...

Glucose

... carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants . Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts respiration . The natural form ( D -glucose) is also referred to as dextrose , especially in the food industry. A Haworth projection representation ...

Herpetology

... but otherwise have surprisingly little else in common. Typically, amphibians have a permeable skin that assists in the exchange of gases and respiration , have a two-chambered heart like fish, and are often bound to water for at least some part of their life, if only the laying of eggs or birth of ...

Citric acid cycle

... or the Krebs cycle ) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration . In these aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of carbohydrates , fats and ...

Leaf

... tissue) to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate fully into the tissues. Leaves are also the sites in most plants where respiration , transpiration , and guttation take place. Leaves can store food and water , and are modified in some plants for other purposes. The ...

Mitochondrion

... inner mitochondrial membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae , that project inward. The cristae surface houses the machinery needed for aerobic respiration and ATP formation, and their folded form increases that capacity by increasing the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The ...

Mitochondrion

... inner mitochondrial membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae , that project inward. The cristae surface houses the machinery needed for aerobic respiration and ATP formation, and their folded form increases that capacity by increasing the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... is the reduced form and NAD + is the oxidized form of NAD. NAD is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration . It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... is the reduced form and NAD + is the oxidized form of NAD. NAD is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration . It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... is the reduced form and NAD + is the oxidized form of NAD. NAD is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration . It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the ...

Redox

... Photosynthesis involves the reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen . The reverse reaction, respiration , oxidises/oxidizes sugars to produce carbon dioxide and water. As intermediate steps, the reduced carbon compounds are used to reduce Nicotinamide ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells . It is the final metabolic pathway of cellular respiration , after glycolysis and the citric acid cycle . The process takes place at a biological membrane . In prokaryotes this is the plasma ...

Physiology

... Within the field of exercise physiology , studies have been conducted that show the effects of dehydration on homeostasis . Topics respiration Circulation Diving mammals See also Pathophysiology Important publications in physiology ...

Plant physiology

... In botany , plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology of plants . Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis , respiration and transpiration are studied by plant physiologists. It is closely related to biochemistry and molecular biology . External links ...

Redox

... Photosynthesis involves the reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen . The reverse reaction, respiration , oxidises/oxidizes sugars to produce carbon dioxide and water. As intermediate steps, the reduced carbon compounds are used to reduce Nicotinamide ...

Stoma

... for gas exchange. Air containing carbon dioxide and oxygen enters the plant through these openings where it gets used in photosynthesis and respiration . Waste oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the chlorenchyma cells of the leaf interior exits through these same openings. Also, water vapor ...
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