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rate in Biological Definition

Cancer

... those tissues that have a high replacement rate (e.g. intestinal lining). These cells usually ... of cancer) is the process of derangement of the rate of cell division . Cancer is, ultimately, a ... refers to tissue growth based on an excessive rate of cell division, leading to a larger than usual ...

Diabetes mellitus

... countries. The greatest increase in prevalence rate is, however, expected to occur in Asia and ... this is likely due to both differences in the rate of type 1 and differences in the rate of other types, most prominently type 2. Most of ...

Diffusion

... helium is not a major component of air. The rate of transport is governed by the diffusivity and ... in the field, causing a net current. The rate of transport is governed by the electrical ... to the speed at which it is flowing. The rate of transport is governed by the viscosity of ...

Ebola

... . The outbreak in Sudan showed a lower fatality rate — 50% — compared to the 90% mortality rate of the Zare strain. In 1990 , a third, similar ... about the epidemic (Draper 15-23). The fatality rate for the 1976 outbreak was 88.05%; the 1977 ...

Edward's syndrome

... these initial difficulties. The survival rate for Edward's Syndrome is still incredibly low. ... is also difficult to determine what the survival rate or prognosis would be for the condition if they ... as their genetically 'normal' peers. The rate of occurance for Edward's Syndrome is ~ 1:3000 ...

Enzyme

... history 2 Structure and function 2.1 rate of enzyme mediated reactions 2.2 Specificity ... the coupled reactions in one direction. rate of enzyme mediated reactions Main article: rate of enzyme mediated reactions Enzymes can ...

Growth curve

... an important role. In many types of cancer, the rate at which tumors shrink following chemotherapy is related to the rate of tumor growth before treatment. Tumors that ... Figure 2, a tumor is found after the cell growth rate has slowed. Most of the cancer cells are removed ...

Insulin

... which have produced a much higher success rate (about 90% in one group). Beta cell transplant ... and avoiding too high peaks after meals) the rate of diabetic complications goes down. If glucose levels are very closely controlled, that rate can even approach 'normal'. The chronic diabetic ...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics

... Michaelis-Menten kinetics describe the rate of enzyme mediated reactions for many enzymes. ... is constant. To determine the maximum rate of an enzyme mediated reaction, the substrate concentration ( [S] ) is increased until a constant rate of product formation is achieved. This is the ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... can be assumed to have accumulated at the same rate as individuals with mutations are born. This ... it has been argued, is predictable from the error rate of the enzymes that carry out DNA replication ... from a common ancestor. While the mutation rate is no longer considered a constant, diverse and ...

Thermoregulation

... temporarily increases the production of heat, the rate of production steadily rising after a meal until ... the metabolism of the various tissues at such a rate that their capital is soon exhausted. Blood that ... metabolic capital of the respiratory centre. The rate of the heart is quickened, the beats then become ...

Twin

... has been the result of a twin pregnancy. The rate of twinning varies greatly among ethnic groups , ... for the first time ever in the US , the twinning rate exceeded 3% of all births. Thus, approximately ... into the uterus in order to increase the success rate of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Twin ...

Activation energy

... basis of the relationship between the activation energy and the rate at which a reaction proceeds. The study of reaction rates is termed ... with more energy than the activation energy, and consequently the rate of reaction increases. Typically the activation energy is given as the ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... The first law gives rise to the formula It states that the rate of diffusion of a gas across a membrane is Constant for a given gas at ... through. In this situation, one can use a flux limiter . The exchange rate of a gas across a fluid membrane can be determined by using this law ...

Fitness landscape

... success. It is assumed that every genotype has a well defined replication rate (often referred to as fitness ). The set of all possible genotypes and ... A population may not be able to climb a very sharp peak if the mutation rate is too high, or it may drift away from a peak it had already found. The ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... over 2 million records as of 2005 . The size of this database, and its rate of growth, is giving concern to civil liberties groups in the UK, where ... a coincidental match is 1 in 100 billion (100,000,000,000). However, the rate of laboratory error may be much higher than this, and often actual ...

Kidney

... present. A person's blood pass through the kidneys 350 times a day at the rate of 1.2 litres per minute, producing 125cc of glomerular filtrate per minute. Measuring the glomerular filtration rate is a diagnostic test of kidney function . Kidney tissue ...

Molecular evolution

... mortality and fertility. Differential mortality is the survival rate of individuals before their reproductive age. If they survive, they are ... technique was inspired by the once common assumption that the DNA error rate is constant--not just over time, but across all species and every part of ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... generations. Thus, on average, the limb grows at the minute, gradual rate of only 0.005 cm per generation (= 50 cm / 10000 generations). The ... catastophism, it is often incorrectly assumed that he insisted that the rate of change be constant or nearly so. Punctuation appears also to be ...

Ribosome

... (large) 60S subunit.[The unit S means Svedberg units, a measure of the rate of sedimentation of a particle in a centrifuge, where the sedimentation rate is associated with the size of the particle. Svedberg units are not ...

Species

... species. Darwin's work drew on Thomas Malthus ' insight that the rate of growth of a biological population will always outpace the rate of growth of the resources in the environment, such as the food supply. As ...

Thomas Malthus

... based on the idea that population if unchecked increases at a geometric rate (i.e. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, etc.) whereas the food supply grows at an arithmetic rate (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc.) (See Malthusian catastrophe for more ...

Active transport

... gradient (collectively termed an electrochemical gradient ). This is achieved by either altering the affinity of the binding site or altering the rate at which the protein changes conformations. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Types 1.1 Primary 1.2 Secondary ...

Antibiotic

... in the United States had a strain that resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some child-care locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that the normal, low cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen infections. This ...

Apoptosis

... amounts to the proliferation and subsequent destruction of a mass of cells equal to an individual's body weight. Homeostasis is achieved when the rate of mitosis (cell proliferation) in the tissue is balanced by cell death. If this equilibrium is disturbed, either of two things happen: The ...

Biodiversity

... is under way. While estimates over extinction rates range from a handful to upwards of 200 species a day, most scientists believe that the rate of species loss is greater now than at any time in human history- with extinctions occuring at rates hundreds of times higher than background ...

Cell growth

... is not initiated until a cell has reached a certain size. If the nutrient supply is restricted (after time t = 2 in the diagram, below) and the rate of increase in cell size is slowed, the time period between cell divisions is increased. Yeast cell size mutants were isolated that begin cell ...

Chromatography

... be interacting with the stationary phase based on charge, relative solubility or adsorption. There are two theories of chromatography, the plate and rate theories. Retention The retention is a measure of the speed at which a substance moves in a chromatographic system. In continuous ...

Cloning

... the findings in an obscure Chinese science journal, which was never translated into English. [1] Health aspects However, the success rate has been very low: Dolly was born after 276 failed attempts; 70 calves have been created from 9,000 attempts and one third of them died young; ...

Down syndrome

... is consistent with the official statistics, wherein 1500 children with Down Syndrome should, statistically, have been born per year (at a prevalence rate of 1:600), but only 63 p.a. were listed in the 1995 birth register. Providing what advocates call outdated and biased information on the ...

Cold-blooded

... Ectotherms depend largely on external sources of heat, such as solar radiation . As the environmental temperature increases, the animal's metabolic rate will increase. Lizards, fish, and amphibians are examples of ectotherms. Whereas an endotherm, or warm-blooded animal will use up to 98% of its ...

Gel electrophoresis

... proteins have a similar charge to mass ratio. Since denatured proteins act like they were long rods instead of having a complex tertiary shape, the rate at which the resulting SDS coated proteins migrate in the gel is relative only to its size and not its charge or shape. After the electrophoresis ...

Warm-blooded

... assumed to have the same temperature as their surroundings. In winter , there may not be enough food to enable an endotherm to keep its metabolic rate stable all day, so some organisms go into a controlled state of hypothermia called hibernation , or torpor . This deliberately lowers the body ...

Equilibrium

... may or may not be stable. Some specific examples are: Chemical equilibrium , the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction, resulting in no net change in the amount of each compound . Mechanical equilibrium , also known as static equilibrium ...

Eugenics

... (before they were labeled as such) was Alexander Graham Bell , best known as one of the inventors of the telephone . In 1881, Bell investigated the rate of deafness on Martha's Vineyard , Mass. From this he concluded that deafness was hereditary in nature and recommended a marriage prohibition ...

Evolution

... Natural selection is based on differential survival and reproduction rates as a result of the environment. Differential mortality is the survival rate of individuals before their reproductive age. If they survive, they are then selected further by differential fertility — that is, their total ...

Extinction

... of biodiversity Population genetics External links A mathematical model for mass extinction Species disappearing at an alarming rate (MSNBC) Red List of Threatened Species References Mass Extinction Underway | Biodiversity Crisis | Global Species Loss Univ. ...

Gene

... If not, it is considered as junk DNA , and is not expressed. Cells regulate the activity of genes in part by increasing or decreasing their rate of transcription. Over the short term, this regulation occurs through the binding or unbinding of proteins, known as transcription factors , to ...

Gel electrophoresis

... proteins have a similar charge to mass ratio. Since denatured proteins act like they were long rods instead of having a complex tertiary shape, the rate at which the resulting SDS coated proteins migrate in the gel is relative only to its size and not its charge or shape. After the electrophoresis ...

Glucose

... react with the amino groups of proteins . This reaction ( glycosylation ) reduces or destroys the function of many enzymes . The low rate of glycosylation is due to glucose's preference for the less reactive cyclic isomer . Nevertheless, many of the long-term complications of diabetes ...
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