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rare in Biological Definition

Evolution

... use the same genetic code (with some extremely rare and minor deviations) to translate nucleic acid ... origin of life from non-life is either extremely rare or only happens under conditions very unlike ... permitted abiogenesis. Since abiogenesis is rare or impossible under modern conditions and the ...

Blood type

... 3.1 ABO 3.2 Rhesus 4 rare phenotypes 4.1 Bombay phenotype 5 ... common in populations of Asian descent, but rare in ones of European descent.) Rhesus Rh ... Ee , appear to be closely related to Rh. rare phenotypes Bombay phenotype ...

Twin

... time, within the same menstrual cycle , or in rare cases within one menstrual cycle of each other. ... also share the placental blood supply. In rare cases, blood passes disproportionately from one ... Mixed sex identical twins In extremely rare cases, identical twins have been born with ...

Chromosome

... Jacobsen syndrome , also called the terminal 11q deletion disorder. A very rare disorder. More information at http://www.11q.org . Klinefelters ... European Chromosome 11q Network Eurochromnet , European network for rare Chromosome Disorders on the Internet ...

Marine biology

... rocky bottoms, and the open ocean (pelagic) zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary. A large ... as two examples of the many. Plant life Plant life is relatively rare undersea, most of the niche occupied by plants on land is actually ...

Parthenogenesis

... Asexual versus sexual reproduction Asexuality is relatively rare among multicellular organisms, for reasons that are not completely ... It is believed that the success of those salamanders may be due to the rare (perhaps only one mating out of a million) actual fertilization of eggs by ...

Albinism

... have been no reports of true albinism in horses. White horses lack the pink eyes that make a true albino. Bristol Zoo was the home to a very rare albino African penguin named Snowdrop. Snowdrop was hatched at the zoo in October 2002 and died in August 2004. For many years, a unique albino ...

Biodiversity

... . In-situ is usually seen as the ultimate conservation strategy. However, its implementation is sometimes unfeasible. For example, destruction of rare or endangered species' habitats sometimes requires ex-situ conservation efforts. Furthermore, ex-situ conservation can provide a backup solution to ...

Blood

... thought to be due to an excess of blood, bloodletting and leeching were a common intervention until the 19th century (it is still used for some rare blood disorders). In classical Greek medicine, blood was associated with air, springtime, and with a merry and gluttonous ( sanguine ) personality. ...

Centromere

... However, there must still be some original way in which the centromere is specified, even if it is subsequently propagated epigenetically. In rare cases in humans, neocentromeres can form at new sites on the chromosome. This must be coupled with the inactivation of the previous centromere since ...

Cilium

... flagella. Cilia are found in all animals, although nematodes and arthropods only have non-motile cilia on some sensory nerve cells. Cilia are rare in plants occurring most notably in cycads . Protozoans ( ciliates ) possess motile cilia exclusively and use them for either locomotion or to ...

Genetic code

... the reading frame (i.e. insertions or deletions of one or two nucleotide bases) severely impair the function of a protein and are thus exceedingly rare in protein-coding sequences, since they do not often survive purifying selection . Origin of the genetic code Numerous variations of the ...

Collagen

... triple helices where each strand is, further, a right-handed helix itself. Thus, tropocollagen may be considered to be a coiled coil. Another rare feature of collagen is its regular arrangement of amino acids in each of the alpha chains of the collagen sub-units. The sequence generally follows ...

Ploidy

... Polyploidy Polyploidy is the state where all cells have multiple pairs of chromosomes beyond the basic set. Polyploidy is common in plants, and rare in animals. ...

Fitness landscape

... An evolving population typically climbs uphill in the fitness landscape, until a local optimum is reached (Fig. 1). There it remains, unless a rare mutation opens a path to a new, higher fitness peak. Note, however, that at high mutation rates this picture is somewhat simplistic. A population ...

Gene

... in alleles may give rise to differences in traits, for example eye color. A gene's most common allele is called the wild type allele, and rare alleles are called mutants . Normally, RNA is an intermediate product in the translation of a molecular gene into a protein. However, for some ...

Genetic drift

... many beneficial adaptations may be eliminated. Similarly, migrating populations may see founder's effect , where a few individuals with a rare allele in the originating generation can produce a population that has allele frequencies that seem to be at odds with natural selection. Founder's ...

Genetic code

... the reading frame (i.e. insertions or deletions of one or two nucleotide bases) severely impair the function of a protein and are thus exceedingly rare in protein-coding sequences, since they do not often survive purifying selection . Origin of the genetic code Numerous variations of the ...

Genetic recombination

... similar sequences on two completely different chromosomes. These processes are called unbalanced recombination. Unbalanced recombination is fairly rare compared to normal recombination, but severe problems can arise if a gamete containing unbalanced recombinants becomes part of a zygote . Offspring ...

Ploidy

... Polyploidy Polyploidy is the state where all cells have multiple pairs of chromosomes beyond the basic set. Polyploidy is common in plants, and rare in animals. ...

Hermaphrodite

... of intersexuality formerly known as "True Hermaphroditism", occurs in about one percent of mammals (including humans ), but it is extremely rare for both sets of sexual organs to be functional, usually neither set is functional. In many cases, these manifestations are altered, sometimes only ...

Insulin

... termed insulin shock from the most common causative agent). Because endogenous causes of insulin excess (such as an insulinoma ) are extremely rare naturally, the overwhelming majority of hypoglycemia cases are caused by human action (e.g. iatrogenic , caused by medicine), and are usually ...

Isozyme

... of the enzyme, for example a long way from the active site then the mutation may be selectively neutral and subject to genetic drift . (3) In rare cases the mutation may result in an enzyme that is more efficient, or one that can catalyse a slightly different chemical reaction , in which case ...

Marcello Malpighi

... been proved incorrect. He was also the first to discover and study human fingerprints . Despite of his anatomical studies, he was also one of the rare contemporary scholars who studied plants ; he published his findings in a book Anatomia Plantarum in 1671 . It was the most exhaustive study of ...

Molecular evolution

... convey a selective advantage or disadvantage to the individual that inherits them. Answering such questions is an aim of population genetics . rare spontaneous errors in DNA replication cause the mutations that drive molecular evolution. The molecular clock technique, which researchers use to ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... neutral alleles. Through drift, these new alleles may become more common within the population. They may subsequently decline and disappear, or in rare cases they may become "fixed"--meaning that the substitution they carry becomes a universal feature of the population or species. When an allele ...

Prion

... phenomenon may explain why transmission of prion diseases from one species to another (such as from sheep to cows or from cows to humans) is a rare event. The mammalian prion proteins do not resemble the prion proteins of yeast in their amino acid sequence. Nonetheless, the basic ...

Prokaryote

... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular ) organisms without a nucleus . The name prokaryote comes from the Greek pros meaning before and karyon meaning nut, ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... peripheral region in which it evolved. In the peripheral region itself, we might find direct evidence of speciation, but such good fortune would be rare indeed because the event occurs so rapidly in such a small population." An unstated supposition is that, through competition, the descendant ...

Reverse genetics

... the effects that follow from damaging or changing it. Otherwise, the two approaches contrast. By the classical approach, geneticists first look for rare individuals with unusual traits or phenotypes , and then they trace these traits to an underlying faulty allele or gene. Locating the gene on its ...

Stem cell

... stage at which embryonic stem cells would be extracted is still young enough to be able to divide into two embryos, making identical twins , or in rare cases, merge with another blastocyst, even one of the opposite sex [1] , to create a chimera , an individual comprised of populations of cells with ...

Astrobiology

... if and when we ascertain the values of its variables. However uncertainties in the term of the equation make it impossible to predict whether life is rare or common. Another associated topic in xenobiology is the Fermi paradox , which suggests that if intelligent life is common in the universe then ...
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