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Photosynthesis in Biological Definition

Alga

... of living things that produce energy through photosynthesis . They are generally regarded as simple plants ... although they all appear to have acquired photosynthesis from cyanobacteria . All algae lack true ... cell structure typical of bacteria and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in ...

Chlorophyll

... algae , and cyanobacteria . The first step in photosynthesis is when incoming light is absorbed by ... ) Chlorophyll can be shown to be vital for photosynthesis by destarching a leaf from a variegated plant ... therefore contained chlorophyll. This shows that photosynthesis does not occur in areas where chlorophyll is ...

Chloroplast

... cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis . Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria ... from the sun into ATP through a process called photosynthesis . Chloroplasts are one of the forms a plastid ... stacks of thylakoids , the sub-organelle where photosynthesis actually takes place. A stack of thylakoids is ...

Photosynthesis

... photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants , ... all living things depend on energy produced from photosynthesis for their nourishment, making it vital to life on ... . Organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis are called phototrophs . Contents ...

Leaf

... an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis . For this purpose, a leaf is typically flat and ... "assimilation tissue" is the primary location of photosynthesis in the plant (The products of photosynthesis are called assimilates ). In ferns and most ...

Photosynthesis

... photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants , ... all living things depend on energy produced from photosynthesis for their nourishment, making it vital to life on ... . Organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis are called phototrophs . Contents ...

Alga

... of living things that produce energy through photosynthesis . They are generally regarded as simple plants ... although they all appear to have acquired photosynthesis from cyanobacteria . All algae lack true ... cell structure typical of bacteria and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in ...

Glucose

... energy in animals and plants . Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts respiration . The natural form ( D -glucose) is also referred ... carbon as D -glyceraldehyde. Synthesis The product of photosynthesis in plants and some prokaryotes . Formed in the liver and skeletal ...

Metabolism

... or reproduction, but that usually have ecological function. photosynthesis Light-dependent reaction (light reaction) Light-independent ... External links Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Santorio ...

Photosystem

... In the process of photosynthesis , light is absorbed by a photosystem (ancient Greek : phos = light ... the structure and electron pathways in the photosystem. See also photosynthesis chlorophyll light reaction External links Photosystems ...

Photosystem

... In the process of photosynthesis , light is absorbed by a photosystem (ancient Greek : phos = light ... the structure and electron pathways in the photosystem. See also photosynthesis chlorophyll light reaction External links Photosystems ...

Plant

... cell walls composed of cellulose , and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis , using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About 300 plant ... groups, but are close relatives of animals . Importance The photosynthesis and carbon fixation conducted by land plants and algae are the ultimate ...

Plant

... cell walls composed of cellulose , and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis , using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About 300 plant ... groups, but are close relatives of animals . Importance The photosynthesis and carbon fixation conducted by land plants and algae are the ultimate ...

Stoma

... oxygen enters the plant through these openings where it gets used in photosynthesis and respiration . Waste oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the chlorenchyma cells of the leaf interior exits through these same ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation under the catalytic influence of ATP synthase or in the case of plants in chloroplasts by photosynthesis . The main fuels for ATP synthesis are glucose and fatty acids . Initially glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the cytosol . Two molecules ...

Archaea

... also exhibit a variety of different types of metabolism. Of note, the halobacteria can use light to produce ATP , although no Archaea conduct photosynthesis with an electron transport chain, as occurs in other groups. Evolution and classification Archaea are divided into two main groups based on ...

ATP synthase

... (CF O F 1 -ATP synthase). The enzyme is integrated into thylakoid membrane; the CF 1 -part sticks into stroma , were dark reactions of photosynthesis ( Calvin cycle ) and ATP synthesis take place. The overall structure and the catalytic mechanism of the chloroplast ATP synthase are almost the same ...

Autotroph

... from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy . Plants and other organisms using photosynthesis are photolithoautotrophs ; bacteria that utilize the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide or ferrous iron for energy ...

Bacterium

... water. Autotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing chemical compounds are called chemotrophs , and those that obtain their energy from light, via photosynthesis , are called phototrophs . There are many variations on this terminology such as chemoautotrophs and photosynthetic autotrophs and so on. In ...

Botany

... medicine that allow higher life forms to exist. While doing all this, plants also absorb carbon dioxide , an important greenhouse gas , through photosynthesis . A good understanding of plants is crucial to the future of our society as it allows us to: Feed the world Understand fundamental life ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... close their stomata (tiny pores used for gas exchange) during the day in order to conserve water. Normally, they wouldn't be able to carry out photosynthesis , since carbon dioxide from the air wouldn't be available. Therefore, their stomata are open during the night, and it is then that they take in ...

C4 carbon fixation

... of carbon fixation from respiration, thus allowing C 4 plants to increase concentration of CO 2 within their leaves. This increases the amount of photosynthesis and decreases the chances of photorespiration, a harmful process in which organic material and energy is lost from the plant due to high ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... close their stomata (tiny pores used for gas exchange) during the day in order to conserve water. Normally, they wouldn't be able to carry out photosynthesis , since carbon dioxide from the air wouldn't be available. Therefore, their stomata are open during the night, and it is then that they take in ...

Carbon fixation

... Carbon fixation is a process found in photosynthesis in autotrophic plants . It is when the three carbon dioxide molecules taken in each time there is a turn in the Calvin cycle in the dark ...

Bacterium

... water. Autotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing chemical compounds are called chemotrophs , and those that obtain their energy from light, via photosynthesis , are called phototrophs . There are many variations on this terminology such as chemoautotrophs and photosynthetic autotrophs and so on. In ...

Evolution

... systems . Though the origins of life are murky, other milestones in the evolutionary history of life are well-known. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis (around 3 billion years ago) and the subsequent emergence of an oxygen-rich, non-reducing atmosphere can be traced through the formation of banded ...

Eukaryote

... this case cyanobacteria . They usually take the form of chloroplasts , which like cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll and produce energy through photosynthesis . Others are involved in storing food. Although plastids likely had a single origin, not all plastid-containing groups are closely related. ...

Glycolysis

... links The Glycolytic enzymes in Glycolysis: Protein Data Bank Glycolytic cycle with animations Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology ...

Granum

... A granum (plural grana ) is a stack of thylakoids in the chloroplast , an organelle found in plants and eukaryotic algae where photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplasts can have from 10 to 100 grana. ...

Halobacteria

... bacteriorhodopsin . This pigment is used to absorb light, which provides energy to create ATP . The process is unrelated to other forms of photosynthesis involving electron transport, however, and halobacteria are incapable of fixing carbon from carbon dioxide . ...

Lichen

... The algal cells contain chlorophyll , permitting them to live in a purely mineral environment by producing their own organic compounds (see photosynthesis ). The fungus protects the alga against drying out and provides it with minerals obtained from the substratum. If a cyanobacterium is present this ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of photosynthesis , and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in various organisms as well. MH 2 ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of photosynthesis , and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in various organisms as well. MH 2 ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of photosynthesis , and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in various organisms as well. MH 2 ...

Redox

... bicarbonate or carbon monoxide . Redox reactions in biology Much biological energy is stored and released by means of redox reactions. photosynthesis involves the reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen . The reverse reaction, respiration , ...

Photolysis

... Photolysis refers to any chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down by light . Photolysis is a part of photosynthesis , which occurs in the granum of the chloroplast . In photolysis the light absorbed by the chlorophyll is turned into chemical energy which is ...

Photobiology

... Photobiology is the study of the effects of light on living organisms . The field encompasses many biological phenomena, including photosynthesis , visual processing , circadian rhythms , and ultraviolet radiation effects. There are numerous professional societies devoted to the study of ...

Photorespiration

... Photorespiration is an alternate pathway for rubisco , the main enzyme of photosynthesis (specifically, the Calvin cycle ). Although rubisco favors carbon , it can also use oxygen , producing glycolate . This usually occurs when ...

Plant physiology

... In botany , plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology of plants . Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis , respiration and transpiration are studied by plant physiologists. It is closely related to biochemistry and molecular biology . ...

Prokaryote

... of prokaryotes is far more varied than that of eukaryotes, leading to many highly distinct types of prokaryotes. For example, in addition to using photosynthesis or an organic form of carbon for energy like eukaryotes do, prokaryotes may obtain energy from inorganic chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide. ...
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