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Eukaryote

... vesicles or vacuoles , can form by budding off of other membranes. Many cells ingest food and ... the outer membrane invaginates and then pinches off to form a vesicle. It is probable that most other ... they generally enter vesicles, which bud off from the smooth section. In most eukaryotes, the ...

Leaf

... zones may be seasonally deciduous (falling off or dying for the inclement season). This ... from the end of the petiole, like fingers off the palm of a hand. There is no rachis, e.g. ... a secondary vein that is one of several branching off the rachis . Each leaflet is called a pinnule . ...

Cladistics

... share with any other organisms on the diagram. Each clade should be set off by a series of characteristics that appear in its members but not in the ... the bottom), a species or clade is basal to another clade if it branches off toward the bottom, or below the other group in question. Conversely, one ...

Cryptozoology

... been extinct for 65 million years, was caught in a fishing net in 1938 off the coast of Africa . Of an even older lineage than the coelacanth ... 1976 discovery of the previously unknown megamouth shark , discovered off Oahu , Hawaii , when it tried to eat a ship's anchor. Some have ...

Dialysis

... or out of the peritoneal cavity. Because the full bag of fluid is clamped off but the empty bag is not, the effluent (used dialysis fluid) from within ... the line of air and other impurities. The drain line is then clamped off and the twist valve on the catheter end is opened. This permits fluid to ...

Extinction

... new competitor species. Habitat degradation through toxicity can kill off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through ... capacity, or competitiveness. DDT played such a role in killing off bald eagles and other birds by thinning the egg shell walls of ...

Photosynthesis

... since the 1800s . Jan van Helmont began the research of the process off in the mid-1600s when he, by carfully measuring the mass of the soil in ... Hill in 1937 and 1939 . He showed that isolated chloroplasts give off oxygen in the presence of unnatural reducing agents like iron oxalate , ...

Photosynthesis

... since the 1800s . Jan van Helmont began the research of the process off in the mid-1600s when he, by carfully measuring the mass of the soil in ... Hill in 1937 and 1939 . He showed that isolated chloroplasts give off oxygen in the presence of unnatural reducing agents like iron oxalate , ...

Vestibular system

... Positional Vertigo , is probably caused by pieces that have broken off from the Otoliths, and have slipped into one of the semicircular canals. ... by Tutis Vilis, contains fantastic animations - at a high level(!) - off all sensory systems, as well as the corresponding PDF-Files, and ...

Anabolism

... to have anabolic and catabolic processes occurring in cells simultaneously, there are many signals that switch on anabolic processes while switching off catabolic processes and vice versa. Most of the known signals are hormones of various types. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many ...

Antibiotic

... resistance in insects. Evolutionary theory of genetic selection requires that as close as possible to 100% of the infecting organisms be killed off to avoid selection of resistance; if a small subset of the population survives the treatment and is allowed to multiply, the average susceptibility ...

C4 carbon fixation

... The product is usually converted to malate , a simple organic compound that gives up its CO 2 to the Calvin cycle after being shipped off to bundle sheath cells surrounding a nearby vein . After losing the CO 2 , it becomes pyruvate , and can be phosphorylated into PEP at the cost ...

Anabolism

... to have anabolic and catabolic processes occurring in cells simultaneously, there are many signals that switch on anabolic processes while switching off catabolic processes and vice versa. Most of the known signals are hormones of various types. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many ...

Disulfide bond

... links In bacteria Disulfide bonds play an imporant protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns a protein on or off when bacterial cells are exposed to oxidation reactions. Hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ) in particular can severely damage DNA and kill the ...

Morphogenesis

... of molecules involved in morphogenesis are molecules that control cell adhesion . For example, during gastrulation clumps of stem cells switch off their cell-to-cell adhesion, become migratory, and take up new positions with an embryo where they again activate specific cell adhesion proteins and ...

Enzyme

... kinases : those enzymes that transfer a phosphate group to an amino acid residue of a protein Protein phosphatases : those enzymes that take off a phosphate group from an amino acid residue of a protein Restriction enzymes : those enzymes which cut DNA or RNA at specific locations ...

Fermentation

... into alcohol, carbon dioxide and other components through a process called Glycolysis . After a week or so, the fresh (or "green") beer is run off into conditioning tanks . After conditioning for a week or longer, the beer is often filtered to remove yeast and particulates. The "bright beer" ...

Genomics

... genomics 3 Genetic similarity 4 See also 5 Sources and external links History Genomics appeared in the 1980s and took off in the 1990s with the initiation of genome projects for several species. The related field of genetics is the study of genes and their role in ...

Homeostasis

... Chemical regulation The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon to control blood-sugar concentration. The lungs take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide . The kidneys remove urea , and adjust the concentrations of water and a wide variety of ions . Most of these organs ...

Human

... societies, ritual is considered essential for survival as it wins the favor of the spirits of one's source of food, shelter, and fertility and wards off malevolent spirits. In more elaborate animistic religions, such as Shinto , there is a greater sense of a special character to humans that sets them ...

Insulin

... A chain); proinsulin consists of BCA, without L 2. Spontaneous folding 3. A and B chains linked by sulphide bonds 4. Leader and C chain are cut off 5. Insulin molecule remains Structure and production Insulin is synthesized in humans and other mammals within the beta cells (B-cells) of ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... On the other hand, the inheritance of acquired characteristics is now widely refuted. August Weismann disproved the theory by cutting the tails off mice, demonstrating that the injury was not passed on to the offspring. Jews and other religious groups have been circumcising men for hundreds ...

Lac repressor

... exits. The enzyme RNA polymerase is like a car . For a specific protein sequence to be made, the car must drive from a specific entrance and get off at the next exit. The repressor in its active form is like a red light at the entrance. The lac repressor works with the cooperation of another ...

Lichen

... tissues die and release the soredia to be dispersed by wind. Another form of diaspore are isidia, elongated outgrowths from the thallus that break off for dispersal. Fruticose lichens in particular can easily fragment. Due to the relative lack of differentiation in the thallus, the line between ...

Liver

... the right kidney . The liver is supplied by two major blood vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal vein . The hepatic artery normally comes off the celiac trunk . The portal vein brings venous blood from the digestive tract, so that the liver can process the nutrients and toxins extracted ...

Marine biology

... on coral reefs and the El Nio weather phenomenon. In the 1998 coral reefs experienced a "once in a thousand years" bleaching event, which killed off vast expanses of reefs across the globe, due to sea surface temperatures rising well above normal. Some reefs are recovering, but scientists say that ...

Memory B cell

... B cells can recognize the pathogen and start to divide. Quickly, they form a new generation of cells, and memory cells. The new generation kills off the pathogen so quickly the body does not become noticeably ill. ...

Mitosis

... and the chromosomes are unfolded back into chromatin. This is often followed by cytokinesis or cleavage , where the cellular membrane pinches off between the two newly separated nuclei, to form two new daughter cells. At this point, each new nucleus contains one copy of each chromosome. Mitosis ...

Morphogenesis

... of molecules involved in morphogenesis are molecules that control cell adhesion . For example, during gastrulation clumps of stem cells switch off their cell-to-cell adhesion, become migratory, and take up new positions with an embryo where they again activate specific cell adhesion proteins and ...

Nutrition

... and that it is the accumulation of fatty tissue over the years which may gradually and inevitably reduce life expectancy. This has set researchers off on a line of study which presumes that it is not low food energy consumption which increases longevity. Instead, longevity may depend on an efficient ...

Origin of life

... with it. A related hypothesis holds that life may have formed first on early Mars , and been transported to Earth when crustal material was blasted off of Mars by asteroid and comet impacts to later fall to Earth's surface. Both of these hypotheses are even more difficult to find evidence for, and ...

Paleontology

... based on the fossil record , evidence of their existence preserved in rocks . This includes the study of body fossils , tracks, burrows, cast off parts, fossilized feces (" coprolites "), and chemical residues. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Overview 2 Notable ...

Plasmolysis

... Plasmolysis is the contraction of cells within plants due to the loss of water through osmosis . It is the cell membrane peeling off of the cell wall and the vacuole collapsing. Plasmolysis occurs when a plant cell's membrane shrinks away from its cell wall. This phenomenon ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... are diluted by the sheer bulk of the population through which they must ... [in] small, peripherally isolated groups [that] are cut off from their parental stock ... selective pressures are usually intense because peripheries mark the edge of ecological tolerance for ancestral forms. ...

Spermatogenesis

... the acrosome reaction) of the sperm cells so viability is maintained. Spermatozoa are produced in seminiferous tubules in the testes . They start off as spermatogonia , undergoing mitosis becoming a type A spermatogonium or a type B spermatogonium. Type B spermatogonia become primary ...

Stem cell

... them in cultures, and implanting the new follicles into the scalp. Later treatments may be able to simply signal follicle stem cells to give off chemical signals to nearby follicle cells which have shrunk during the aging process, which in turn respond to these signals by regenerating and ...

Stoma

... underside of the leaf with transparent nail varnish.(or thin layer of PVA glue ) Allow to dry out thoroughly (takes a good 30 minutes). Peel off and place on a microscope slide. The stomata leave clearly visible impressions in the nail varnish. A graticule slide allows for the ...

T cell

... known as one of the targets of HIV infection, and the decrease of CD4 + T cells results in AIDS . Some helper T cells secrete cytokines that turn off the immune response once an antigen has been eliminated from the body. Every effective immune response involves T cell activation, however they ...

Mitosis

... and the chromosomes are unfolded back into chromatin. This is often followed by cytokinesis or cleavage , where the cellular membrane pinches off between the two newly separated nuclei, to form two new daughter cells. At this point, each new nucleus contains one copy of each chromosome. Mitosis ...

Vesicle

... from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, and from there to the outer cell membrane, where they are secreted. They do this by budding off from one compartment and joining to another. Anterograde transport vesicles These are forward-moving vesicles. Retrograde transport ...
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