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Metabolism in Biological Definition

Cell metabolism

... Cell metabolism is the process (or really the sum of many ... nutrient molecules and maintain a living state. metabolism has two distinct divisions: anabolism , in which ... to yield energy and reducing power. Cell metabolism involves extremely complex sequences of ...

Glycolysis

... O + 2 H + So, for simple fermentations, the metabolism of 1 molecule of glucose has a net yield of 2 ... reactions more closely connected to aerobic metabolism occur). Glucose gets into the cell through ... oxidative phosphorylation . Although human metabolism is primarily aerobic, under anaerobic conditions, ...

Insulin

... hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism . Apart from being the primary effector in carbohydrate homeostasis, it also takes part in the metabolism of fat ( triglycerides ) and proteins – ... slightly between species . Its carbohydrate metabolism regulatory function strength also varies. Pig ...

Life

... once during its existence : Growth metabolism , consuming, transforming and storing energy / ... of life can be simply remedied by defining metabolism in a more biochemically exact way. Biochemistry by Voet and Voet defines metabolism as follows: "Metabolism is the overall process ...

Metabolism

... metabolism (from ... ( anabolism ) and their breakdown ( catabolism ). metabolism usually consists of sequences of enzymatic steps, also called metabolic pathways . The total metabolism are all biochemical processes of an organism. ...

Origin of life

... is regarded as moving force of early evolution (" metabolism -first"). Recently, trends are emerging to create ... and postulate the emergence of a primitive metabolism which could provide an environment for the later ... for the plausibility of the emergence of metabolism without the presence of genes include a ...

Osmoregulation

... systems 5.1 Waste products of nitrogen metabolism 5.2 How osmoregulation is achieved in ... excretory systems Waste products of nitrogen metabolism Ammonia is a toxic by-product of protein metabolism and is generally converted to less toxic ...

Thermoregulation

... but by the tissues at large. Wherever destructive metabolism ( catabolism ) is going on, heat is being set ... be capable of storing energy as fat for metabolism have reduced extremities some have ... still less energy is generated. This diminished metabolism tells first on the central nervous system, ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... Crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM ) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic plants . ... that CAM plants contain no bundle sheaths around their veins, and C 4 metabolism is continuous, while CAM only occurs at night. ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... Crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM ) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic plants . ... that CAM plants contain no bundle sheaths around their veins, and C 4 metabolism is continuous, while CAM only occurs at night. ...

Glucose

... 1 Isomerism 2 Synthesis 3 Role in metabolism 4 External links Isomerism There are two enantiomers ... from intermediates by a process known as gluconeogenesis . Role in metabolism Carbohydrates are the human body's key source of energy, providing 4 ...

Hormone

... cell death), activation or inhibition of the immune system , regulating metabolism and preparation for a new activity (e.g. fighting, fleeing, mating) or ... Homeostatic regulation of hormones depends, apart from production, on the metabolism and excretion of hormones. Hormone secretion can be stimulated and ...

Liver

... is an organ in vertebrates including humans. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body including detoxification, ... the gallbladder . The liver performs several roles in carbohydrate metabolism : Gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose from certain amino ...

Muscle

... - rich in myoglobin (which is red and carries oxygen ), higher aerobic metabolism and mitochondria and hence more capable of endurance activities ... require maximum strength). Fast twitch (type II) - more anaerobic metabolism (due to less myoglobin and mitochondria) but better at generating more ...

Nutrition

... or macro levels by nutrition, for example cancer can arise through cell metabolism malfunction, and high energy levels can promote health through frequent ... uptake retardation. This was done through altering an animal’s metabolism to allow it to consume similar food-energy levels to other animals, but ...

Primary nutritional groups

... energy from reactions of chemical compounds. The basis for energy metabolism of most chemotrophic organisms are oxidation-reduction reactions in ... reflect the different use of possible electron acceptors in the energy metabolism of chemotrophic organisms, such as O 2 (aerobic respiration), NO 3 - , ...

Protein

... regulation of cellular functions such as signal transduction and metabolism . For example, protein catabolism requires only a few enzymes termed ... carnivores protein is one of the largest component of the diet . The metabolism of proteins by the body releases ammonia , an extremely toxic substance. ...

Signal transduction

... A and D among them. These hormones play a key role in the regulation of metabolism , organ function, developmental processes and cell differentiation . ... , cytoskeleton management, cell motion , gene expression and metabolism . The three main pathways that lead to Ca 2+ activation are : G ...

Virus

... types. Below, this entry discusses how viral replication depends on the metabolism of the host. Therefore, the study of viruses can provide fundamental ... and do not have their own metabolism, they must utilize the machinery and metabolism of the host to reproduce. For this reason, viruses are called obligate ...

Coenzyme A

... Coenzyme A ( CoA , CoASH , or HSCoA ) is adapted from pantothenic acid and adenosine triphosphate and used in metabolism in areas such as fatty acid oxidization and the citric acid cycle . Its main function is to carry acyl groups such as acetyl as ...

Aerobic

... "air" usually means oxygen ). The opposite of aerobic is anaerobic . See also: Aerobic exercise Aerobic glycolysis Aerobic metabolism Aerobic organism Aerobic respiration Aerobics ...

Alcohol

... damage. Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized, and often their metabolism produces even more toxic substances. Methanol, or wood alcohol , for instance, is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes in the liver to the ...

Anabolism

... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by growth. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anabolic or ...

Anaerobic

... - rotting being a process requiring water and oxygen - see Seahenge . See also: Anaerobic exercise Anaerobic glycolysis Anaerobic metabolism Anaerobic organism Anaerobic respiration oxygen depletion ...

Antigen

... and other cells. Endogenous antigens Endogenous antigens are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism , or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with class I ...

Archaea

... domains of living things. Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya Archaea are similar to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell structure and metabolism . However, their genetic transcription and translation - the two central processes in molecular biology - do not show the typical bacterial ...

ATPase

... across the membrane. (These are called transmembrane ATPases ). Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that can hinder cellular processes. An important example is the sodium-potassium exchanger (or Na + /K + ...

Biology

... zoology . Botany is the scientific study of plants . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth , reproduction , metabolism , development , diseases , and evolution of plant life . Zoology is the discipline which involves the study of animals , which includes the ...

Bacterium

... called lithotrophs and others needing organic compounds (e. g. sugars or organic acids) and are called organotrophs . The metabolic modes of energy metabolism (phototrophy or chemotrophy), reducing equivalent sources (lithotrophy or organotrophy) and carbon sources (autotrophy or heterotrophy) can be ...

Bioinformatics

... biology involves the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism , signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. ...

Biochemistry

... has focused more specifically on the chemistry of enzyme -mediated reactions, and on the properties of proteins. The biochemistry of cell metabolism has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis , cell membrane ...

Bone

... structures, protect internal organs , and (in conjunction with muscles ) facilitate movement ; are also involved with cell formation , calcium metabolism , and mineral storage . The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton . Evolutionary alternatives to bones are shells and ...

Botany

... referred to as plant science(s) or plant biology . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth , reproduction , metabolism , development , diseases , and evolution of plants . Nearly all the food we eat comes (directly and indirectly) from plants like ...

Cancer

... as the reduction of cancer mortality via reduction in the incidence of cancer. This can be accomplished by avoiding a carcinogen or altering its metabolism ; pursuing lifestyle or dietary practices that modify cancer-causing factors or genetic predispositions ; and/or medical intervention ...

Anabolism

... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by growth. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anabolic or ...

Bioinformatics

... biology involves the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism , signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. ...

Cytosol

... The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm , which also includes the organelles ) is the internal fluid of the cell , and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways, glycolysis , and they act as intracellular ...

Diabetes mellitus

... as cell growth, cellular protein synthesis, and fat storage. Insulin is the principal signal in converting many of the bidirectional processes of metabolism from a catabolic to an anabolic direction. If the amount of insulin produced is insufficient, if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin ...

Drug

... Popular Drugs Terminology The term "drug" is necessarily a vague one, being defined by intent: for example, foods consumed for normal metabolism are not generally considered "drugs", but the same foods consumed for a more specific purpose (such as the use of alcohol as a depressant or caffeine ...

Escherichia coli

... told his father-in-law that Escherichia was a king in the Old Testament . External links Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli K12 Genes and metabolism The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in Canadian Pulp and Paper Mill Water Systems - a Cause for Concern? - by Dr. F. Archibald (abstract only) ...
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