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long in Biological Definition

ATP synthase

... mitochondria , the F O F 1 ATP synthase has a long history of scientific study. The F 1 portion of ... apparatus of the mitochondrion, but through a long series of experiments, Ephraim Racker and his ... with the creation of ATP by yet another long series of experiments in many laboratories. ...

Bone

... replaced by lamellar bone as growth continues. long bones are tubular in structure (e.g. the tibia ). The central shaft of a long bone is called the diaphysis , and has a hollow ... (e.g. finger bones) have a similar structure to long bones, except that they have no medullar cavity. ...

Chromosome walking

... in genetics for identifying and sequencing long parts of a DNA strand, e.g., a chromosome . As ... chain termination method does not allow long DNA strands to be sequenced, this method works by dividing the long sequence into several consecutive short ones. ...

DNA

... kbp). The intertwining of the DNA strands makes long segments difficult to separate. Circular ... in length -- approximately 5 centimetres long for strands in a human chromosome. Consequently, ... and coworkers deciphered the genetic code not long afterward. These findings represent the birth of ...

Gel electrophoresis

... Double-stranded DNA fragments natually behave as long rods, so their migration through the gel is ... the nucleic acids and cause them to behave as long rods again. Proteins, on the other hand, can ... Since denatured proteins act like they were long rods instead of having a complex tertiary shape, ...

Enzyme

... by coupling it to a spontaneous one , as long as the net free energy from the total of both ... against mutation, separating these regions by long stretches of 'spacer' amino acids where mutation ... (PAH): Phospholipase Polymerase : builds long chains of nucleic acid polymers from their ...

Gel electrophoresis

... Double-stranded DNA fragments natually behave as long rods, so their migration through the gel is ... the nucleic acids and cause them to behave as long rods again. Proteins, on the other hand, can ... Since denatured proteins act like they were long rods instead of having a complex tertiary shape, ...

Insulin

... Regulatory action on blood glucose Despite long intervals between meals or the occasional ... a sensible choice. Several large, well designed, long term studies have conclusively shown that ... glucose levels approach 'normal' patterns over long periods. In short, if a diabetic closely controls ...

Natural selection

... die before reproducing, or be less prolific. As long as environmental conditions remain the same, or ... tend to develop in different directions. After a long period of time, their traits will have developed ... progress, until the hand of time has marked the long lapses of ages, and then so imperfect is our view ...

Nutrition

... and health In the 18th Century, many sailors on long journeys died from scurvy ; indeed, some naval ... fat processing metabolism, and the consequent long term efficient functioning of our organs free ... reducing fat intake has an effect on obesity. As long as your expenditure equals what you eat, you ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... speciation can occur relatively quickly, with long periods of little change— equilibria ... is well known among paleobiologists, and has long been noted. Besides appealing to the ... which species have undergone modification, though long as measured in years, have probably been short in ...

Apoptosis

... delivered on 8 Dec. 2002 [14] . Programmed cell death had been known long before "the worm people" began to publish their celebrated findings. In ... decision on individual cells. As part of the same research, and not long afterwards, on February 1992, Michael Hengartner found that ced-9 had a ...

Artificial life

... automaton -- made up of a control computer, a construction arm, and a long series of instructions, floating in a lake of parts. By following the ... the system to consistently create new "organisms" identical to itself, so long as there was a random pool of new boxcars to draw from. Edward F. Moore ...

Bacterial conjugation

... carries a tra and a trb locus , which together are about 33 kb long and consist of about 40 genes . The tra locus includes the pilin gene ... The amount of chromosomal DNA that is transferred depends on how long the bacteria hold contact; the transfer of the whole bacterial chromosome ...

Cancer

... formed in epithelial tissues and are believed often to be the result of a long biological process related to the interaction of exogenous exposures with ... such as gene therapy . A clinical trial is one of the final stages of a long and careful cancer research process. The search for new treatments begins ...

Chromosome

... chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm. (4) long arm. A chromosome (in Greek chroma = colour and soma = body) ... strands) become visible as a chromosome, linked at the centromere . long microtubules are attached at the centromere and two opposite ends of the ...

Ebola

... Congress that a fruit extract of Garcinia kola, a West African tree long used by local traditional healers, stopped ebola virus replication in lab ... world have quit transporting monkeys because of the risk of Ebola. Not so long ago, a monkey cost $1500 ( USD ) to transport, but now costs three times ...

Warm-blooded

... is that you need much less food. This means that you can survive famine, long ocean voyages, and shortage of prey when warm blooded creatures would ... of in between creatures include: Tuna and Swordfish . Fish have long been thought to be cold blooded. Tuna and swordfish dive deep into the ...

Kidney

... Structural details In a normal human adult, each kidney is about 11 cm long and about 5 cm thick, weighing 150 grams . The kidneys are "bean-shaped" ... it out of the hilus into the ureter . ureter : A narrow tube 40 cm long and 4 mm in diameter. Passing from the renal pelvis out of the hilus and ...

Leaf

... Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. These long cylindrical cells are regularly arranged in one to five rows. Cylindrical ... felted-tomentose: woolly and matted with curly hairs. villous: with long and soft hairs, usually curved. woolly: with long, soft and tortuous or ...

Long-term potentiation

... for the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in hippocampal long term potentiation". J Biol Chem 272 (31), 19103-6. PMID 9235897 ... 1997 Feb 6;385(6616):533-6. PMID 9020359 Bennett MR. "The concept of long term potentiation of transmission at synapses." Prog Neurobiol. 2000 ...

Louis Pasteur

... and even in vessels with no filter at all, with air being admitted via a long tortuous tube that would not allow dust particles to pass. Nothing grew in ... immunity to the virulent version was not new: this had been known for a long time for smallpox . Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far ...

Molecular evolution

... of organisms changing over time. The genetic material consists of DNA , long sequences of nucleotides in each individual organism. Because most ... nucleotides or bases in either DNA or RNA. At present it is still a long and expensive process to sequence the entire genome of an organism, and ...

Olfaction

... range of odors that it can detect. Odor information is easily stored in long term memory and has strong connections to emotional memory . This is ... to the limbic system and hippocampus , areas of the brain that have long been known to be involved in emotion and place memory, respectively. To ...

Origin of life

... used in the context of biology and the origin of life. Abiogenesis was long considered to be a very common occurrence until the Law of Biogenesis ( ... life can be formed spontaneously. Simple organic molecules are of course long way from fully functional self-replicating life forms; however, in an ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... primer. Primers that are too short would anneal at several positions on a long DNA template, which would result in non-specific copies. On the other ... diseases The detection of hereditary diseases in a given genome is a long and difficult process, which can be shortened significantly by using PCR. ...

Blood type

... the mother. Rh incompatibility was until recently the most common cause of long term disability in the United States. At first, this was treated by ... content of the red blood cell antigens. The gene is located on the long arm of the ninth chromosome (9q34). A allele gives type A, B gives ...

Species

... Importance in biological classification The idea of species has a long history. It is one of the most important levels of classification, for ... could pass on an acquired trait to its offspring, i.e., the giraffe 's long neck was attributed to generations of giraffes stretching to reach the ...

Trait

... is called a gene . A gene is a strand of DNA that is part of a very long and compacted string of DNA called a chromosome . An important ... occurred in pairs and could exhibit linkage . His tool was statistics : long before the molecular theory of DNA . Biochemistry of dominance and ...

Y chromosome

... including humans. As a result, the only species that would survive in the long term would be those species that naturally evolved a female-only method of ... molecule to another. It has been previously observed on a small scale over long evolutionary timescales between repeated sequences on the same chromosome, ...

Abiogenesis

... of sterilization, and the difficulties in securing it, as well as the extreme delicacy of the manipulations necessary, made it possible for a very long time to be doubtful as to the application of the phrase omne vivum e vivo to the microscopic world, and there still remain a few belated supporters ...

Adaptive radiation

... short time, many species derive from a single or a few ancestor species. From this large number of genetic combinations, only a few can survive on long term. After the rapid development of many new species, lots or most of them die out as quickly as they appeared. The surviving species are almost ...

Albinism

... have ever been reported in the wild. Snowdrop would normally have looked like the background penguins Culture In Jamaica , albinos have long been denigrated and regarded as cursed. In recent times, the albino dancehall singer Yellowman has helped to end this perception. See also: ...

Alexander Fleming

... all its intrinsic worth, would not be able to be produced in sufficient quantities to have an appreciable effect in a war situation. Fleming was long a member of the Chelsea Arts Club , a private club for artists of all genres, founded in 1891 at the suggestion of the painter James McNeil ...

Animal

... such as snails , clams , and squids , and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches . These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods, ...

Antibody

... by binding with them. It is important to note that antibodies cannot attack pathogens within cells, and certain viruses "hide" inside cells for long periods of time to avoid them. This is the reason for the chronic nature of many minor skin diseases (such as cold sores ); any given outbreak is ...

Axon

... An axon , or " nerve fiber ," is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or " neuron ," which conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. Axons are in ...

B cell

... for phagocytes . Memory B cells are formed specific to the antigen(s) encountered during the primary immune response; able to live for a long time, these cells can respond quickly upon second exposure to the antigen for which they are specific. Humoral immunity (the creation of ...

Blood

... . Circulation blockage can also create many medical conditions from ischemia in the short term to tissue necrosis and gangrene in the long term. Hemophilia is a genetic illness that causes dysfunction in one of the blood's clotting mechanisms . This can allow otherwise ...

Botany

... , diseases , and evolution of plants . Nearly all the food we eat comes (directly and indirectly) from plants like this American long grain rice. This is one of the many reasons that botany is an important topic of study and research. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") ...
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