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line in Biological Definition

Species

... particularly in temperate regions. The dividing line is often a sudden change in habitat (an ecotone ) like the edge of a forest or the snow line on a mountain, but can sometimes be remarkably ... The rise of a new species from a parental line is called speciation . There is no ...

Stem cell

... necessity of starting a new embryonic stem cell line with the destruction of a blastocyst. Thus, the ... that detailed information about a new stem-cell line which was derived from human embryos under ... stem cell research because the start of each cell line involves the destruction of a blastocyst. This ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... his hypothesis of the zoogeographical boundary now known as the Wallace line . One of his better known species descriptions during this trip is the ... Hall, Ltd., London See also Australia-New Guinea Wallace line ...

Bone

... induced osteogenetic cells. They are flattened, mononucleate cells which line bone Osteocytes originate from osteoblasts which have migrated into and ... a projection near to a condyle but not part of the joint line , Ridge a long, thin projection, often with a rough surface ...

Dialysis

... is drained directly from the upper bag into the lower bag. This clears the line of air and other impurities. The drain line is then clamped off and the twist valve on the catheter end is opened. ...

HeLa

... been grown in cell culture in an unbroken lineage ever since. This cell line was propagated for use in cancer research . Initially, the cell line was said to be named after a "Helen Lane", in order to preserve Lacks's ...

Mitosis

... As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores, they begin to line up in the middle of the cell. Proper segregation requires that every ... are attached to microtubules emanating from each centriole - they line up in the middle of the spindle, forming what is called the metaphase ...

Mitosis

... As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores, they begin to line up in the middle of the cell. Proper segregation requires that every ... are attached to microtubules emanating from each centriole - they line up in the middle of the spindle, forming what is called the metaphase ...

Archaea

... in 2002 by Karl Stetter , but their affinities are uncertain. Woese argued that the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes each represent a primary line of descent that diverged early on from an ancestral progenote with poorly developed genetic machinery. This hypothesis is reflected in the name ...

Cartilage

... such as between intervertebral disks, the pubic symphisys and at sites connecting tendons or ligaments to bones . There is rarely any clear line of demarcation between fibrocartilage and the neighboring hyaline cartilage or connective tissue. The fibrocartilage found in intervertebral disks ...

Charles Darwin

... evolution was a significant blow to creationism and notions of intelligent design prevalent in 19th century science. The idea that there was no line to draw between man and beast would forever make Darwin a symbol of iconoclasm who removed humanity's privileged role in the center of the universe. ...

Chromosome

... gametes (reproductive cells) which are haploid [n] (they have only one set of chromosomes). Gametes are produced by meiosis of a diploid germ line cell. During meiosis, the matching chromosomes of father and mother can exchange small parts of themselves ( crossover ), and thus create new ...

Cladistics

... are inherently subjective, even when they reflect evolutionary relationships, since living things form an essentially continuous tree. Any dividing line is artificial, and creates both a monophyletic section above and a paraphyletic section below. Paraphyletic taxa are necessary for classifying ...

Computed axial tomography

... renal/urinary stones , appendicitis , pancreatitis , diverticulitis , abdominal aortic aneurysm , and bowel obstruction . CT is also the first line for detecting solid organ injury after trauma. Oral and/or rectal contrast is usually administered (more often iodinated contrast than barium due ...

Electrical energy

... the charge moves through the potential difference. Electrical energy is also identical to the electromagnetic fields surrounding a transmission line , the fields contained in capacitors and inductors, or the fields propagating in space as electromagnetic radiation . The amount of electrical ...

Experimental evolution

... in a high-temperature environment. Unfortunately, Dallinger's incubator was accidentally destroyed in 1886, and Dallinger could not continue this line of research. Lenski's long-term evolution experiment with E. coli On February 15 , 1988 , Richard Lenski started a long-term evolution ...

Cell membrane

... membrane proteins. Anchoring restricts them to a particular cell face or surface--for example, the "apical" surface of epithelial cells that line the vertebrate gut --and limits how far they may diffuse within the bilayer. Finally, rather than presenting always a formless and fluid contour, ...

Human Genome Project

... funding ). Celera initially planned to patent all genes found, unlike the gene sequences found by the original publicly-funded HGP, which are in line with the so called Bermuda Statement (Feb 1996) made freely available to the public, 24 hours a day. However, Celera later decided to release its ...

Kinetic energy

... is the rotational kinetic energy For the translational kinetic energy of a body with mass m , whose centre of mass is moving in a straight line with linear velocity v , we can use the Newtonian approximation: E translation is the translational kinetic energy m is mass of ...

Lichen

... that break off for dispersal. Fruticose lichens in particular can easily fragment. Due to the relative lack of differentiation in the thallus, the line between diaspore formation and vegetative reproduction is often blurred. Many lichens break up into fragments when they dry, dispersing themselves to ...

Long-term potentiation

... receptor activity in the hippocampus has also been shown to produce enhanced LTP and an overall improvement in spatial learning. Joe Tsein produced a line of mice with enhanced NMDA receptor function by overexpressing the NR2B subunit in the hippocampus [22] . These mice, nicknamed "Doogie mice" ...

Malaria

... for travellers to affected regions. Certain strains of Plasmodium have recently developed resistance to chloroquine which has been the first line of treatment in many countries, thus complicating the treatment. In West Africa , where the local strains of malaria are particularly virulent, ...

Meiosis

... for prophase is different. Homologous chromosomes join into tetrads (so called because each tetrad contains four chromatids), and the tetrads line up on the metaphase plane . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Meiosis I 1.1 ProphaseI 1.2 Metaphase I 1.3 ...

Microsatellite

... replication may be damaged, microsatellites may be gained or lost at an especially high frequency during each round of mitosis . Hence a tumour cell line might show a different genetic fingerprint from that of the host tissue. See also: minisatellite , mobile element , transposon , short ...

Nutrition

... it is the accumulation of fatty tissue over the years which may gradually and inevitably reduce life expectancy. This has set researchers off on a line of study which presumes that it is not low food energy consumption which increases longevity. Instead, longevity may depend on an efficient fat ...

Peptide

... peptide chains that are short enough to make synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. The dividing line is at approximately 50 amino acids in length, since naturally-occurring proteins tend, at their smallest, to be hundreds of residues long. So, in ...

Phospholipid

... head is not attracted to water and is said to be hydrophobic . When placed in water, phospholipids form a bilayer , where the hydrophobic tails line up against each other, and forms a membrane with hydrophilic heads on both sides extending out into the water. This allows it spontaneously to form ...

Pigment

... is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble, and a dye , which is either a liquid, or is soluble. There is no well-defined dividing line between pigments and dyes, however, and some coloring agents are used as both pigments and dyes. In some cases, a pigment will be made by ...

Cell membrane

... membrane proteins. Anchoring restricts them to a particular cell face or surface--for example, the "apical" surface of epithelial cells that line the vertebrate gut --and limits how far they may diffuse within the bilayer. Finally, rather than presenting always a formless and fluid contour, ...

Peptide

... peptide chains that are short enough to make synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. The dividing line is at approximately 50 amino acids in length, since naturally-occurring proteins tend, at their smallest, to be hundreds of residues long. So, in ...

Protein

... to as proteins, but shorter strings of amino acids are referred to as "polypeptides," " peptides " or very rarely "oligopeptides". The dividing line is somewhat undefined, although a polypeptide may be less likely to have tertiary structure and may be more likely to act as a hormone (like ...

Repeated sequence (DNA)

... Tandem repeats : Satellite DNA , Minisatellite , Microsatellite ; Interspersed repeats : SINE ( S hort IN terspersed E lements), line ( L ong IN terspersed E lements). ...

Thermoregulation

... Bergmann suggested that they should be known as " homeothermic " and " poikilothermic " animals. But it must be remembered there is no hard and fast line between the two groups. Also, from work done by J. O. Wakelin Barratt, it has been shown that under certain pathological conditions a warm-blooded ...

Y chromosome

... only species that would survive in the long term would be those species that naturally evolved a female-only method of reproduction. However, this line of reasoning was based on the sole assumption that lack of knowledge about Y chromosome repair meant that no possible repair mechanism could exist. ...
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