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level in Biological Definition

Biology

... , and molecular genetics . At the level of the cell , it is studied in cell biology ... . Developmental biology studies life at the level of the development or ontogeny of an individual ... individual. Population genetics looks at the level of an entire population , and systematics ...

Botany

... from the molecular , genetic and biochemical level through to organelles , cells , tissues , ... , or what ecologists call the first trophic level . Understanding how plants produce the food we ... ISBN 1572590416 - A first year undergraduate level textbook James D. Mauseth: Botany : an ...

Diabetes mellitus

... in the liver not muscle tissue. Higher insulin level increase many anabolic ("building up") processes ... distress, and eventually vomiting . The rising level of glucose increases the volume of urine produced ... Abdominal pain is common and may be severe. The level of consciousness is normal until late in the ...

Insulin

... 3 Actions on cellular and metabolic level 4 Regulatory action on blood glucose 5 ... arteries . Actions on cellular and metabolic level The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include: cellular intake of certain ...

Neuroscience

... involves many levels of study, from the molecular level through the cellular level (individual neurons ), the level of relatively small assemblies of neurons like ...

Red Queen

... of Bray ) only showed adaptive benefit at the level of the species or group, not at the level of the gene . By contrast, a Red-Queen-type ... explain the utility of sexual reproduction at the level of the gene by positing that the role of sex is ...

Biodiversity

... diversity among species ecosystem diversity - diversity at a higher level of organization, the ecosystem (richness in the different processes to ... as mutations, gene exchanges, and genome dynamics that occur at the DNA level and generate evolution. For biologists , biodiversity is the ...

Barbiturate

... the lethal dose becomes very narrow. That is, in order to obtain the same level of intoxication, the tolerant abuser may raise his or her dose to a level that may result in coma or death. Although many individuals have taken ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... phyla is not necessarily reflected in similar diversity at the at the level of the genetic sequences controlling development. Indeed as Gerhart and ... does the novelty come from? If the morphological novelty we observe at the level of the different clades is not always reflected in the genome, where ...

Gradient

... the slope actually is. The gradient at a point is perpendicular to the level set going through that point, that is, to the curve of constant height at ... and spherical coordinates Ion gradient Gradient descent level set ...

Photosynthesis

... plants 2 Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria 3 At the molecular level 4 Discovery 5 Factors affecting photosynthesis 6 In Detail ... bacteriochlorophylls , and do not produce oxygen. At the molecular level Photosynthesis produces more energy for certain wavelengths of light. ...

Homeostasis

... the tendency of a population or an individual to stay at a certain level of stress, often generating artificial stresses if the "natural" level of stress is not enough. Examples Thermal regulation : The ...

Light-dependent reaction

... are transferred to a photosystem I complex, which boosts their energy level to a higher level using a second solar photon. The highly excited Arif Rashid electrons are ...

Light-dependent reaction

... are transferred to a photosystem I complex, which boosts their energy level to a higher level using a second solar photon. The highly excited Arif Rashid electrons are ...

Photosynthesis

... plants 2 Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria 3 At the molecular level 4 Discovery 5 Factors affecting photosynthesis 6 In Detail ... bacteriochlorophylls , and do not produce oxygen. At the molecular level Photosynthesis produces more energy for certain wavelengths of light. ...

Species

... which scientists typically refer to organisms. It is the only taxonomic level which has empirical content, in the sense that asserting that two animals ... , and many formerly grouped populations have been split. Any taxonomic level (species, genus, family, etc.) can be synonymized or split, and at higher ...

Anabolism

... the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by growth. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anabolic or catabolic . Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and ...

Antibiotic

... difficult to treat, terrible to endure, and frequently fatal. Observation of other species of mold and other organisms revealed a hitherto unknown level of chemical warfare being carried out against bacteria. New antibiotics were rapidly discovered and came into widespread use, and a new era of ...

Apoptosis

... their research on how interferon alpha and beta (IFN-alpha/beta)induce transcription of the p53 gene , resulting in the increase of p53 protein level and enhancement of cancer cell-apoptosis. p53 is a tumor suppressor, and is considered as a negative-growth and anti-oncogenic factor. Work ...

Biologist

... to direct independent research but a bachelor's or master's degree is sufficient for most non-research positions. Training on the undergraduate level usually is very general while later training involves a specialization in a specific area of biology . (U.S. Department of Labor) See also: ...

Anabolism

... the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by growth. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anabolic or catabolic . Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and ...

Culture

... refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another, such as happened to American Indians. Related processes on an individual level are assimilation and transculturation , adoption of a different culture by an individual. Cultural studies Cultural studies developed in ...

Digestion

... is churned and thoroughly mixed with acid and other digestive enzymes with digestive fluid to further decompose it chemically. As the acidic level changes in the stomach and later parts of the digestive tract, more enzymes are activated or deactivated to extract and process various nutrients. ...

Escherichia coli

... water purification and sewage treatment , E. coli was chosen very early in the development of the technology as an "indicator" of the pollution level of water, meaning the amount of human fecal matter in it. The main reasons for using E. coli are that there are a lot more coliforms in human ...

Electrophysiology

... passive recording as well "patch-clamp" technique, which "clamp" or maintain the cell potential (voltage-clamp ) or current (current-clamp ) at a level the experimenter may specify. This control is established using feedback through an operational amplifier circuit. The control of the membrane ...

Warm-blooded

... A warm-blooded ( homeothermic ) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis ). This can involve not only the ability to ...

Eukaryote

... cell was a milestone in the evolution of life. Although eukaryotes use the same genetic code and metabolic processes as prokaryotes, their higher level of organizational complexity has permitted the development of truly multicellular organisms. Without eukaryotes, the world would lack mammals, birds, ...

Fungus

... vegetable caterpillar Fungal infections may also be a factor in causing specific replant disease . In general, humans have a high level of innate immunity to fungi and most of the infections they cause are mild and self-limiting. This resistance is due to: Fatty acid content ...

Gene regulatory network

... Overview Genes can be viewed as nodes in a network , with input being proteins such as transcription factors , and outputs being the level of gene expression . The node itself can also be viewed as a function which can be obtained by combining basic functions upon the inputs (in the ...

Glycome

... glycome challenge by claiming that the glycome is: ... thousands of times as complicated as the genome, in magnitude of complexity and level of diversity". (Perkel 2002) There is a pivotal body in this field, called the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) funded by the (US) ...

Glycomics

... the entirety of carbohydrates in an organism is thus collectively referred to as the glycome . This area of research has to deal with an inherent level of complexity not seen in other areas of applied biology. Whereas genes have four building blocks and proteins have 20, the saccharides have a ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... classes. However, an extra degree of freedom is lost because the expected values were calculated from the observed values). The 5% significance level for 1 degree of freedom is 3.84, and since the χ 2 value is less than this, the null hypothesis that the population is in ...

Human Genome Project

... The Human Genome Project (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair ) level and to identify all the genes present in it. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 History 2 Goals 3 Benefits 4 ...

Hyperpolarization

... Hyperpolarization has several meanings: In biology , hyperpolarization occurs when a cell's membrane potential dips below its resting level . In physics , hyperpolarization is the selective polarization of nuclear spin in atoms far beyond normal thermal equilibrium. ...

Kidney

... are retroperitoneal, which means they lie behind the peritoneum , the lining of the abdominal cavity . They are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3, and the right kidney usually lies slightly lower than the left in order to accommodate the liver . The upper parts of the kidneys are ...

Life

... to be "alive"; see mules and ants for examples. However, these exceptions can be accounted for by applying the definition of life on the level of entire species or of individual genes . (For example, see kin selection for information about one way by which non-reproducing individuals ...

Long-term potentiation

... potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapses.". J Neurosci 20 (12), 4446-51. References Deadwyler SA, Dunwiddie T, Lynch G. "A critical level of protein synthesis is required for long-term potentiation." Synapse . 1987;1(1):90-5. PMID 3505366 Frey U, Morris RG. "Synaptic tagging and ...

Mitochondrion

... a single large mitochondrion, but usually a cell has hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol . Mitochondria are sometimes ...

Mitochondrion

... a single large mitochondrion, but usually a cell has hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol . Mitochondria are sometimes ...

Nutrition

... People working hard in a cold environment may need high fat levels in their diets, to help maintain normal body temperature. This beneficial high fat level may be very harmful for people in other situations, eg a sedentary worker in an air-conditioned office. So the aim of good nutrition in terms of ...
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