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length in Biological Definition

Chromatography

... measured as the retention factor R f , the run length of the compound divided by the run length of the eluent front: The retention of a ... for solutes to separate. For a column of fixed length and flow, the retention time ( t R ) and ...

DNA

... and dissociation 6.2 Circular DNA 6.3 Great length versus tiny breadth 6.4 Different helix ... the sequence; The order of the bases along the length of the DNA is what it's all about, the sequence ... of recombination in linear DNA. Great length versus tiny breadth The narrow breadth of the ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... J is the diffusion flux in dimensions of [parts length -2 time -1 ] D is the diffusion ... c is the concentration in dimensions of [parts length -3 ] x is the position Fick's Second ... c is the concentration in dimensions of [parts length -3 ] t is time D is the diffusion ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... a buccal swab . Next, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is performed by ... has been introduced: AFLP, or amplified fragment length polymorphism. This new technique is similar to ... See also restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) paternity test ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... of the new DNA strand. The choice of the length of the primers and their melting temperature (Tm) ... The melting temperature increases with the length of the primer. Primers that are too short would ... in non-specific copies. On the other hand, the length of a primer is limited by the temperature ...

Primer

... fragment to be amplified by the PCR process. The length of primers is usually not more than 50 nucleotides (Since DNA is usually double-stranded, its length is measured in base pairs. The length of single-stranded DNA is measured in bases or ...

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

... biology , the term restriction fragment length polymorphism (or RFLP ) is used in two related ... fragments are then separated according to length by agarose gel electrophoresis . The resulting ... sites ) varies between individuals: so the length of the fragments varies, and the position of ...

Secondary structure

... G = 3-turn helix (3_10 helix). Min length 3 residues. H = 4-turn helix ( alpha helix ). Min length 4 residues. I = 5-turn helix (pi helix). Min length 5 residues. T = hydrogen bonded turn (3, 4 or ...

Ebola

... The filaments are reported to be between 60-80 nm in diameter; the length of a filament associated with an individual viral particle is extremely variable, with Ebola particles of up to 14,000 nm in length being reported. An average length, which may represent the most infectious ...

Flagellum

... of the cell. The direction at the end of the tumble state is random. The length of the run state is extended when the bacteria moves through a favorable ... is driven by the protein dynein bridging the microtubules all along its length and forcing them to slide relative to each other, and ATP must be ...

Alga

... have been reached, leading to organisms with full tissue differentiation. These are the brown algae —some of which may reach 70 m in length ( kelps )—the red algae , and the green algae . The most complex forms are found among the green algae (see Charales ), in a lineage that ...

Alternative splicing

... step towards higher efficiency, because information can be stored much more economically. Several proteins can be encoded in a DNA sequence whose length would only be enough for two proteins in the prokaryote way of coding. Others have noted that it is unnecessary to change the DNA of a gene for the ...

Anaphase

... yeast and certain protozoa use anaphase B as the main means of chromosome separation and can extend the spindle to up to 15 times its metaphase length in the process. See also gamete cytokinesis prophase prometaphase metaphase telephase chromosome prokaryote ...

Antibody

... but only one type is present in each antibody. Each light chain has two successive domains: one constant and one variable domain. The approximate length of a light chain is from 211 to 217 amino acids. The monomer is composed of two heavy and two light chains. Together this gives six to eight ...

Biomechanics

... as continuous media. For example, at the tissue level, the arterial wall can be modeled as a continuum . This assumption breaks down when the length scales of interest approach the order of the microstructural details of the material. The basic postulates of continuum mechanics are conservation of ...

Centromere

... that there is not a primary site of microtubule attachments or a primary constriction, and a "diffuse" kinetochore assembles along the entire length of the chromosome. See also: Genetics -- Cell biology External links Report about Nature Genetics article that centromere of ...

Cladistics

... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. In some cladograms, the length of the horizontal lines indicates time elapsed since the last common ancestor. Cladistics ( Greek : clados = branch) or phylogenetic ...

Enzyme

... critical to correct function, and because the frequency of a mutation which would produce a nonfunctional active region is proportional to the length of the chain separating the amino acids involved, evolution works against having the amino acids from an active region widely dispersed, instead ...

Expressed sequence tag

... determination. An EST is produced by one-shot sequencing of a cloned mRNA , and the resulting sequence is a relatively low quality fragment whose length is limited by current technology to approximately 500 to 800 nucleotides . ESTs are also a useful resource for designing probes for DNA microarrays ...

Eye

... focus. Such a condition is known as presbyopia . There are other refraction errors arising from the shape of the cornea and lens, and from the length of the eyeball. These include myopia , hyperopia , and astigmatism . Convergence When a person stares at an object, the two eyeballs ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... a more frequent and continuous use of any organ gradually strengthens, develops and enlarges that organ, and gives it a power proportional to the length of time it has been so used; while the permanent disuse of any organ imperceptibly weakens and deteriorates it, and progressively diminishes its ...

Leaf

... the leaf; e.g. most Acer (maples). Parallel-veined, parallel-ribbed, parallel-nerved, penniparallel — veins run parallel most the length of the leaf, from the base to the apex. Commissural veins (small veins) connect the major parallel veins. Typical for most monocotyledons , such ...

Microscope

... . In its simplest form—as used by Robert Hooke , for example—the compound microscope would have a single glass lens of short focal length for the objective, and another single glass lens for the eyepiece or ocular. Modern microscopes of this kind are usually more complex, with ...

Mitosis

... mitosis — begin recruiting microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) and forming mitotic spindles . By increasing the length of the spindle (growing the microtubules), the centrioles push apart to opposite ends of the cell nucleus. It should be noted that many eukaryotes, ...

Nucleotide

... Thymine C: Cytosine U: Uracil not present in DNA, but takes the place of Thymine in RNA The third and fourth letters indicate the length of the attached phosphate chain (Mono-, Di-, Tri-) and the presence of a phosphate (P). For example, deoxy-cytosine-triphosphate is abbreviated as ...

Phage

... and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% of the phages known) of 5 to 650 kbp (kilo base pairs ) with a length of 24 to 200 nm . The vast majority of phages (95%) have a tail to let them inject their genetic material into the host. Phages were discovered ...

Alga

... have been reached, leading to organisms with full tissue differentiation. These are the brown algae —some of which may reach 70 m in length ( kelps )—the red algae , and the green algae . The most complex forms are found among the green algae (see Charales ), in a lineage that ...

Prophase

... begin recruiting microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) and forming a mitotic spindle between them. By increasing the length of the spindle (growing the microtubules), the centrioles push apart to opposite ends of the cell nucleus. See also prometaphase ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... occurring gradually, with no great changes from one generation to the next. This can be understood by considering an example: Suppose the average length of a limb on a particular species grows 50 centimeters (a large amount) over 70000 years (a geologically short period of time). If the average ...

Restriction enzyme

... DNA by a different mechanism. Fragment complementarity and splicing Because recognition sequences differ between restriction enzymes, the length and the exact sequence of a sticky-end " overhang ", as well as whether it is the 5' or the 3' strand that overhangs, depends on which enzyme ...

Species

... (the "fight for existence") that selects the traits to be passed on. This is the theory of evolution by natural selection . In this model, the length of a giraffe's neck would be explained by positing that proto-giraffes with longer necks would have had a significant reproductive advantage to those ...

Mitosis

... mitosis — begin recruiting microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) and forming mitotic spindles . By increasing the length of the spindle (growing the microtubules), the centrioles push apart to opposite ends of the cell nucleus. It should be noted that many eukaryotes, ...

Twin

... order births so rare as to be almost unheard of. Multiple pregnancies are usually delivered before the full term of 40 weeks gestation: the average length of pregnancy is around 37 weeks for twins, 34 weeks for triplets and 32 weeks for quadruplets. Predisposing factors The cause of monozygotic ...
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