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Liver

... ducts. These eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which in turn merge to form the ... to form the falciform ligament and the right and left triangular ligaments. These "ligaments" are in ... side) of the liver. This divides the liver into a left anatomical lobe, and a right anatomical lobe. ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... and Mary Anne Greenell. He attended grammar school in Hertford , but left when his family lost their remaining property. He worked for his older ... another naturalist, Henry Walter Bates (whom he had met in Leicester ), left for Brazil to collect specimens in the Amazon Rainforest , with the ...

Brain

... circumesophageal lobes that are flanked by two large optical lobes on the left and right (Butler, 2000). The brains of craniates develop from the ... to have a function. Myth: Mental abilities are separated into the left and right cerebral hemispheres . Myth: Creativity can be easily ...

Diabetes mellitus

... and usually happens over a period of days rather than hours or minutes. If left untreated this can result in diabetic coma and death. A ... Prolonged and elevated levels of glucose in the blood, which is left unchecked and untreated will, over time, result in serious diabetic ...

Francis Crick

... of the genetic code and the mechanisms of protein synthesis . He later left molecular biology for his other interest, consciousness . His autobiographical book What Mad Pursuit includes a description of why he left molecular biology and switched to neuroscience. Crick's book The ...

Insulin

... at the University, an assistant, Charles Best , and ten dogs, while he left on vacation during the summer of 1921. Using his idea, Banting and Best ... Collip, apparently seeing him as something of an interloper, and Collip left soon after. Over the spring of 1922 Best managed to improve his ...

Kidney

... level T12 to L3, and the right kidney usually lies slightly lower than the left in order to accommodate the liver . The upper parts of the kidneys are ... capillaries. The arteries supply (unfiltered) blood to the kidneys. The left kidney receives about 60% of the renal bloodflow. renal vein : The ...

Lipid

... unpolar). The lipid shown is a phospholipid (two tails). The image on the left is a zoomed version of the more schematic image on the right, which will ... Figure 2: Self-organization of lipids. A lipid bilayer is shown on the left and a micelle on the right. The self-organisation depends on the ...

Stem cell

... stem cells Blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that are left over after birth is one source of adult stem cells. Since 1988 these ... view raises other issues, as the blastocysts involved in the research are left over from in vitro fertility therapy , and when not used in additional ...

Amino acid

... acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon . Amino acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the carboxylic side) in the formation ...

Antibiotic resistance

... up from 4% in 1991. Half of all S. aureus infections in the US are resistant to penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin . This left vancomycin as the only effective agent available at the time. However, VRSA ( Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified ...

Charles Darwin

... total omission of any notice of the officers" for their help, Darwin's health suffered. On 20 September he suffered "palpitations of the heart" and left for a month of recuperation in the country. At Maer, the Wedgwood's home, he entertained his relations. His invalid aunt was being cared for by the ...

Chromosome

... called for determination of only the euchromatic portion of the genome. Telomeres , centromeres , and other heterochromatic regions have been left undetermined, as have a small number of unclonable gaps. [1] Chromosomal aberrations Some chromosome abnormalities do not cause disease ...

Chromatography

... travel different distances according to how strongly they interact with the paper. Paper chromatography takes some time and the experiment is usually left to complete for some hours. The final chromatogram can be compared with other known mixture chromatograms to identify sample mixes. Two-way ...

Cryptozoology

... the "megamouth analogy" too broadly to hypothetical creatures, noting that while "the megamouth does show that the oceans have a lot of secrets left to reveal ... The megamouth is not a useful analogy to support the existence of marine cryptids" in general. [2] Also cited is the 2003 ...

Dialysis

... dialysis , a special solution is run through a tube into the peritoneal cavity , the abdominal body cavity around the intestine . The fluid is left there for a while to absorb waste products, and then removed through the tube. Peritoneal dialysis There are three types of peritoneal ...

DNA

... described as combinations of these accidental "operations". DNA in crime Forensic scientists can use DNA located in blood, semen, or hair left at the scene of a crime to identify a possible suspect, a process called DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting. In DNA profiling the relative ...

Edward's syndrome

... - one to contribute to each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes needed to form a healthy, 46 chromosome cell. However, sometimes egg and sperm cells are left with 24 (or more) chromosomes. It is the joining of these egg or sperm cells that eventually cause a trisomy fetus to be formed. It is this extra ...

Morphogenesis

... all gap genes . Their expression patterns in the early embryo are determined by the maternal effect gene products and shown in the diagrams on the left side of this page. The gap genes are part of a larger family called the segmentation genes . These genes establish the segmented body plan of the ...

Equilibrium

... satisfaction is important; somewhat paradoxically complete satisfaction may not be ideal, it can be argued that perhaps it is better if things are left to be desired. In various practical matters an equilibrium is useful, e.g.: in a conversation , between talking and listening ; in a ...

Eukaryote

... years ago, and most fossil lines are known by the end of the Cambrian , around 500 million years ago. Genetic studies during the 1980s and 1990s left most eukaryotes in an unresolved "crown" group, usually divided by the form of the cristae in their mitochondria. The few amitochondriate groups ...

Gene therapy

... DNA molecule into the host. The genetic material of the adenoviruses is not incorporated into the host cells genetic material. The DNA molecule is left free in the nucleus of the host cell, and the instructions in this extra DNA molecule are transcribed just like any other gene. The only difference ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... notorious case, a criminal even planted fake DNA evidence in his own body: Dr. Schneeberger of Canada raped one of his sedated patients in 1992 and left semen on her underwear. His DNA was tested on three occasions, never showing a match. It turned out that he had surgically inserted a Penrose drain ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... that individuals adapt during their own lifetimes and transmit traits they acquire to their offspring. Offspring then adapt from where the parents left off, enabling evolution to advance. As a mechanism for adaptation, Lamarck proposed that individuals increased specific capabilities by exercising ...

Lambda phage

... followed, i.e. cI refers to the gene, whilst cI is the resulting protein encoded by that gene. The lambda repressor gene system consists of (from left to right on the chromosome): cI gene OR3 OR2 OR1 cro gene The lambda repressor is a dimer also known as the cI protein. It ...

Lung

... is filled with pleural fluid ; this allows the inner and outer layers to slide over each other, and prevents them from being separated easily. The left lung is smaller than the right one to give way for the heart. Human lungs See human lung . Avian lungs Birds have a complex but ...

Metapopulation

... because immigrants from one population (which may, for example, be experiencing a population boom) are likely to re-colonize habitat which has been left open by the extinction of another population. They may also immigrate into another small population and so rescue it from extinction (called the ...

Microscope

... and serves a different purpose. It uses two eyepieces (or sometimes two complete microscopes) to provide slightly different viewing angles to the left and right eyes. In this way it produces a three-dimensional (3-D) visualisation of the sample being examined. Scientist using a stereo ...

Morphogenesis

... all gap genes . Their expression patterns in the early embryo are determined by the maternal effect gene products and shown in the diagrams on the left side of this page. The gap genes are part of a larger family called the segmentation genes . These genes establish the segmented body plan of the ...

Antibiotic resistance

... up from 4% in 1991. Half of all S. aureus infections in the US are resistant to penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin . This left vancomycin as the only effective agent available at the time. However, VRSA ( Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified ...

Nutrition

... before birth ) is acquired from food in the digestive system . Not all the food matter in the stomach can be used for the body; the matter that is left over as waste is removed. Study in this field must take into account the state of the animal before ingestion and after digestion as well as ...

Osmosis

... concentration, and the cell shrinks and so becomes flaccid . This means the cell has become plasmolysed - the cell membrane has completely left the cell wall due to lack of water pressure on it. In unusual environments, osmosis can be very harmful to organisms. For example, freshwater and ...

Prion

... has the remarkable ability to bypass the species barrier to transmission. The figure at right shows a model of two conformations of PrP; on the left is the normal, alpha helical form, while on the right is the prion form. Note the increased sheet content (green arrows) in the prion version of ...

RNA

... in the ribosome is carried out by an RNA-derived ribozyme . From this perspective, retroviruses and ribozymes are remnants, or molecular fossils, left over from that RNA world. Assuming that DNA is better suited for storage of genetic information and proteins are better suited for the catalytic ...

Thomas Hunt Morgan

... Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity . Morgan moved to the California Institute of Technology in 1928 . Morgan died in Pasadena, California . Morgan left an important legacy in genetics. Some of Morgan's students from Columbia and Caltech went on to win their own Nobel Prizes, including George Wells ...

Vestibular system

... allows us to sense all directions of rotation: while the right horizontal canal gets stimulated during head rotations to the right (Fig 2), the left horizontal canal gets stimulated (and thus predominantly signals) by head rotations to the left. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) The ...

Xylem

... the tracheae of insects and xylem cells. In perennial plants , xylem is laid down in multiple phases. Primary xylem is one of the tissues left behind by the apical meristem . Secondary xylem is laid down by vascular cambium on the outside of the xylem column. Contents The xylem ...
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